"Libro d'Oro di Melita"
The family of De Piro who held the titles of Baroni di Budack (Budacco), (1716), Most Illustrious and Noble (1727), and Marques De Piro in Spain (1742).
All Corrections/Additions are Welcome
This family is NOT listed as a noble family in “Descrittione di Malta” (1647) however it was granted a hereditary title of Barone by Grand Master Perellos, Illustrissimo e Nobile by Grand Master Vilhena and Marquis De Piro by King Philip V of Spain. The De Piro family is a ‘new’ family in Malta.
* Cosimo/Gusmano de Piro, viv.temp. (Came to Malta with the Order of St John in 1530 as a child likely under the protection of the Grand Master. Served in the Court of the Grand Master, later was appointed Commander of the Arsenal in Malta. 1592), married (1) 1552 Birgu to Elizabetta Spagnolo (d 1588) married (2) 1590 Birgu to Girolama la Mattina, with issue.
1. (First Marriage) Giovanni de Piro, (Commander of the Arsenal in Malta 1602), married with issue.
1.1. Benedetta de Piro, married 1586 Mdina to Petruccio Sillato, with issue.
1.1.1. Mario Sillato, married 1624 Valletta to Grazia Curmi.
1.1.2. Caterina Sillato, married 1621 Valletta to Gregorio Tonna, with issue.
18.104.22.168. Graziella Tonna, married 1647 Valletta to Sig. Giuseppe Garsin, with issue.
22.214.171.124.1. Giovanni Garsin, married 1678 Cospicua to Lorenza Ros.
126.96.36.199.2. Antonio Garsin, married 1679 Cospicua to Teresa di Maria, with issue.
188.8.131.52.2.1. Aloisio Garsin, married 1706 Valletta to Caterina Cauchi, with issue.
184.108.40.206.2.1.1. Giovanni Garsin, married (1) 1736 Valletta to Grazia "Libertine - Ex-Slave", married (2) 1759 Valletta to Maria Zammit, with issue.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168. (Second Marriage) Aloisio Garsin, married 1787 Valletta to Maria Teresa Grech, with issue.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1. Epifania Garsin, married 1816 Valletta to Rosario La Rosa.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.2. Madalena Garsin, married 1828 Valletta to Ignazio Lombardo of Catania, Sicily.
220.127.116.11. Minichella Tonna, married 1656 Valletta to Luca Cutajar, with issue.
18.104.22.168.1. Aloisea Cutajar, dunm.l.
22.214.171.124.1.1. (illegitimate with a Knight) Grazia Giovanna Aloisea Cutajar, married 1695 Valletta to Conte Francesco Pasquale Castiglione.
126.96.36.199. Aloisia Tonna, married 1659 Valletta to Marcello Gatt.
188.8.131.52. Domenico Tonna, married 1647 Zebbug to Maria Bonello, with issue.
184.108.40.206.1. Salvatore Tonna, married 1689 Gharghur to Clercia Mifsud.
1.1.3. Agatuccia Sillato, married 1615 Valletta to Gio Maria Bonello, with issue.
220.127.116.11. Agostina Bonello, married (1) 1644 Mdina to Mro Giacomo Aquilina, married (2) 1655 Mdina to Mro Matteolo Bartolo.
18.104.22.168. Lorenza Bonello, married 1650 Mdina to Angelo Tanti.
22.214.171.124. Lucrezia Bonello, married 1655 Mdina to Pietro Tanti.
1.1.4. Maruzza Sillato, married 1616 Valletta to Dionio Cassar., with issue.
126.96.36.199. Domenica Cassar, married 1632 Valletta to Ambrosio Casha.
1.1.5. Veronica Sillato, married 1635 Senglea to Andrea Freva.
1.2. Gusmano de Piro, 'Jesuit Monk', dunm.
1.3. Matteo de Piro, 'Monk', dunm.
1.4. Elizabetta de Piro, 'Nun', dunm.
2. Benedetta de Piro, 'Nun', dunm.
3. Federico de Piro, 'Monk', dunm.
4. Vincenzo de Piro, 'Monk', dunm.
5. Cesare de Piro, 'Jesuit Monk', dunm.
6. Laetitia de Piro, 'Nun', dunm.
7. (Second Marriage) Carlo Antonio de Piro, married Vittoria Caruana, and dsp.
8. Paolo de Piro, married (1) 1616 to Giovanella Albano with issue. Married (2) 1646 to Galizia Solemi, with further issue
8.1. (First Marriage) Rev. Cristoforo de Piro, dunm 1671 in Rome.
8.2. Caterinucca de Piro, married 1642 to Domenico Galdies, with issue.
8.2.1. Marietta Galdes de Piro, married 1670 Senglea to Mario Francese, with issue.
188.8.131.52. Vittoria Francese de Piro, married 1698 Qormi to Giuseppe Bugeja.
184.108.40.206. Andrea Francese de Piro, married (1) 1714 Zebbug to Speranza Genuisi, married (2) 1730 Qormi to Maria Grech, with issue.
220.127.116.11.1. (First Marriage) Maruzzo Francese de Piro, married (1) 1737 Xewkija Gozo to Maria Rapa, married (2) 1740 Qormi to Evangelista Muscat.
18.104.22.168.2. Giuseppa Francese de Piro, married 1733 Qormi to Michele Grech.
22.214.171.124.3. (Second Marriage) Saverio Francese de Piro, married 1776 Cospicua to Eufemia Borg., with issue.
126.96.36.199.3.1. Maria Francese, married 1796 Vittoriosa to Giuseppe Micallef.
188.8.131.52.4. Grazia Francese de Piro, married 1751 Qormi to Salvatore Abejer.
184.108.40.206.5. Rosa Francese de Piro, married 1757 Valletta to Giovanni Farrugia.
220.127.116.11.6. Carmine Francese de Piro, married 1769 Valletta to Francesco Bianco.
18.104.22.168.7. Teresa Francese de Piro, married 1802 Cospicua to Gregorio Xicluna.
22.214.171.124. Domenica Francese de Piro, married 1701 Qormi to Filippo Schembri, with issue.
126.96.36.199.1. Michele Schembri, married 1727 Qormi to Francesca Cardona, with issue.
188.8.131.52.1.1. Giuditta Schembri, married 1779 Birkirkara to Giuseppe Micallef.
184.108.40.206.1.2. Grazia Schembri, married 1763 Birkirkara to Francesco Mifsud.
220.127.116.11.1.3. Maria Schembri, married (1) 1757 Qormi to Paolo Mifsud, married (2) 1776 Birkirkara to Grazio Xicluna, married (3) 1788 Birkirkara to Francesco Borg.
18.104.22.168.1.4. Giovanna Schembri, married 1755 Qormi to Giuseppe Gatt.
22.214.171.124.1.5. Filippo Schembri, married 1753 Valletta to Antonia Farrugia.
126.96.36.199.1.6. Girolamo Schembri, married (1) 1764 Birkirkara to Maria Zammit, married (2) 1788 Valletta to Anna Agius.
188.8.131.52.1.7. Francesco Schembri, married 1774 Birkirkara to Grazia Borg, with issue.
184.108.40.206.1.7.1. Maria Schembri, married (1) 1809 Birkirkara to Giuseppe Grech, married (2) 1810 Birkirkara to Angelo Borg.
220.127.116.11.1.7.2. Michele Schembri, married 1806 Birkirkara to Rosa Anna Borg, with issue.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124. Grazia Schembri, married 1835 Birkirkara to Giuseppe Borg.
126.96.36.199.1.7.3. Giuseppe Schembri, married 1819 Birkirkara to Maria Busuttil.
188.8.131.52.2. Giuseppe Schembri, married 1736 Zejtun to Maria Pavia, with issue.
184.108.40.206.2.1. Michele Schembri, married 1781 Zejtun to Maria Fenech.
220.127.116.11.2.2. Francesco Schembri, married 1781 Zejtun to Caterina Bugeja, with issue.
18.104.22.168.2.2.1. Generosa Schembri, married 1812 Zejtun to Angelo Ciccalo.
22.214.171.124.2.2.2. Maria Teresa Schembri, married 1813 Zejtun to Matteo Lauro.
126.96.36.199.2.2.3. Maria Anna Schembri, married 1820 Zejtun to Giuseppe Mifsud.
188.8.131.52. Teresa Francese de Piro, married 1711 Qormi to Domenico Ciantar, with issue.
184.108.40.206.1. Salvatore Ciantar de Piro, married 1737 Rabat Gozo to Teresa Schembri, with issue.
220.127.116.11.1.1. Caterina Ciantar de Piro, married 1738 Zejtun to Tomaso Mifsud.
18.104.22.168.1.2. Maria Ciantar de Piro, married (1) 1745 Zejtun to Angelo Camilleri, married (2) 1759 Valletta to Geronimo Galea.
22.214.171.124.1.3. Anna Ciantar de Piro, married 1769 Valletta to Cristoforo Duran.
8.2.2. Leonara Galdes de Piro, married 1661 Qormi to Leonardo Zammit, with issue.
126.96.36.199. Rosa Zammit de Piro, married 1713 Valletta to Pasquale Pace.
8.2.3. Maria Galdes de Piro, married 1667 Qormi to Mario Cauchi., with issue.
188.8.131.52. Barbara Cauchi de Piro, married 1696 Birkirkara to Francesco Micallef.
184.108.40.206. Angelica Cauchi de Piro, married 1703 Birkirkara to Isidore Cardona, married (2) 1709 Birkirkara to Lorenzo Borg.
8.3. Ottavio de Piro., married (1) 1634 Senglea to Caterina Zammit, married (2) to Anna.., with issue.
8.3.1. (First Marriage)(*3) Vincenza de Piro, married 1662 Senglea to Daniele Romano, with issue.
220.127.116.11. Francesco Romano, married 1700 Zabbar to Francesca dei Baroni di Daniele, with issue.
18.104.22.168.1. Rosa Romano, married 1732 Zabbar to Gioacchino Lia, with issue.
22.214.171.124.1.1. Felice Lia, married to Beatrice Borg.
126.96.36.199.1.2. Giovanni Lia, married 1777 Cospicua to Maddalena Borg.
188.8.131.52. Francesco Romano, married 1700 Zabbar to Francesca de Milo.
184.108.40.206. Giovanni Romano, married 1700 Senglea to Maddalena Pancosta.
8.4. (Second Marriage) Geronima de Piro., married 1672 at Valletta to Domenico Psaila, with issue.
8.4.1. Giuseppe Psaila de Piro, married 1704 Valletta to Maria Barone of Catania, Sicily, with issue.
220.127.116.11. Paolo Psaila, married 1751 Valletta to Maria de Manuele d'Argumento, with issue.
18.104.22.168. Salvatore Psaila, married 1745 Valletta to Vittoria Felici, with issue.
22.214.171.124.1. Giuseppe Psaila, married 1790 Valletta to Rosa Galea.
126.96.36.199.2. Maria Psaila, married 1776 Valletta to Giovanni Bonnet.
188.8.131.52.3. Maruzza Psaila, married 1778 Valletta to Francesco Cortis.
184.108.40.206. Ambrosio Psaila, married 1741 Mdina to Maria Zammit, with issue.
220.127.116.11.1. Vincenza Psaila, marrioed 1766 Valletta to Gio Maria Bartolo.
18.104.22.168.2. Anna Psaila, married 1773 Valletta to Michele Capo.
22.214.171.124.3. Eugenia Psaila, married 1776 Valletta to Calcedonio Savona.
126.96.36.199. Felicitia Psaila, married 1748 Valletta to Fortunato Grech.
188.8.131.52. Fortunata Psaila, married 1755 Valletta to Enrico Micallef.
8.4.2. Anna Psaila de Piro, married 1704 Valletta to Giuseppe Pace.
8.4.3. Saverio Psaila de Piro, married 1713 Birkirkara to Maria Xiberras, with issue.
184.108.40.206. Pietro Psaila, married 1757 Birkirkara to Maria Micallef, with issue.
220.127.116.11.1. Giovanni Psaila, married 1796 Birkirkara to Maddalena Borg.
18.104.22.168.2. Anna Psaila, married 1791 Birkirkara to Michele Catania.
22.214.171.124. Caterina Psaila, married 1729 Valletta to Don Pietro Baldassare Galteri of Messina, married (2) 1739 Birkirkara to Tomaso Borg.
8.4.4. Marino Psaila de Piro, married 1690 Zebbug to Maruzza d'Armenia., with issue.
126.96.36.199. Antonia Psaila d'Armenia, married 1702 Qormi to Domenico Taliana.
8.4.5. Petruzzo Psaila de Piro, married 1696 Zebbug to Maruzza Bonnici, with issue.
188.8.131.52. Carlo Psaila, married 1741 Valletta to Anna Chetcuti, with issue.
184.108.40.206.1. Caterina Psaila, married 1763 Valletta to Francesco Borg.
220.127.116.11.2. Margherita Psaila, married 1770 Valletta to Giuseppe Cassar.
18.104.22.168.3. Maria Teresa Psaila, married 1778 Valletta to Salvatore Casha.
22.214.171.124.4. Liberta Psaila, married 1782 Valletta to Onoroto Farrugiua..
126.96.36.199. Francesco Psaila, married 1743 Valletta to Ventura "Alunna", with issue.
188.8.131.52.1. Giuseppe Psaila, married 1763 Valletta to Vittoria Ellul, with issue.
184.108.40.206.1.1. Vincenzo Psaila, married 1791 Valletta to Rosa Cauchi.
220.127.116.11.2. Rosa Psaila, married 1765 Valletta to Giuseppe Calleja.
18.104.22.168. Rosa Psaila, married 1719 Valletta to Giuseppe Vella.
8.4.6. Angelo Psaila de Piro, married 1706 Birkirkara to Giovanna Psaila.
8.5. Dr Lorenzo Ubaldesco de Piro JUD, married 1671 to Cornelia Cauchi di Cristoforo, with issue.
8.5.1. Dr Gio Pio de Piro, JUD. 1st Marquis de Piro, (Cr:1742); Ist Baron di Budaq, (Cr:1716) -See Below.
9. Giacobina de Piro, married (1) 1613 to Gio Domenico Paradotto, with issue. Married Secondly 1618 to Vincenzo Mancuso, with further issue.
9.1. (First Marriage) Natalizia Paradotto., married 1638 to Dr Giuseppe Lanza JUD.
9.2. Angelica Paradotto, married to Lorenzo Paglio.
9.2.1. (illegitimate) Enrico Mancuso de Piro, married 1670 to Orsola Vivier.
9.3. Gian Francesco Paradotto, dunm 1681.
9.4. Agostino Paradotto.
9.5. Giacinto Paradotto.
9.6. (Second Marriage) Angelica Mancuso, married 1665 at Valletta to Lorenzo Cagliola, with issue.
9.6.1. Verodiana Cagliola., married 1675 at Valletta to Franco Caxcera.
9.6.2. Eugenia Cagliola., married 1685 at Valletta to Dr Matteo Russia JUD., married (2) 1698 Valletta to Pasquale Callus, with issue.
22.214.171.124. (First Marriage) Giuseppa Russia, married 1710 Valletta to Demetrio Farrugia, with issue.
126.96.36.199.1. Diana Farrugia, married 1756 Valletta to Ferdinando Tomani.
188.8.131.52.2. Francesco Saverio Farrugia, married 1762 Valletta to Claudine Maestre, with issue.
184.108.40.206.2.1. Teresa Farrugia, married 1801 Valletta to Camillo Grima-Assenza.
220.127.116.11.3. Gioacchino Farrugia, married 1756 Valletta to Maria Margarita De Leone.
18.104.22.168.4. Stefano Farrugia, married 1765 Valletta to Ursola Mamo, (d/o Gio Battista and Martina).
9.6.3. Anna Cagliola, married 1680 Valletta to Emmanuele Condorato, with issue.
22.214.171.124. Teresa Condorato, married 1720 Valletta to Jean Claude Joannon of Lyon, France.
126.96.36.199. Maddalena Condorato, married 1756 Valletta to Francesco Lorenzo Costa.
188.8.131.52. Sig. Gio Alessandro Condorato, married 1731 Valletta to Busetta.
184.108.40.206. Sig. Albano Condorato, married 1735 Valletta to Aloisea Capilliani, with issue.
220.127.116.11.1. Margherita Cordorato, married 1758 Valletta to Antonio Pitua.
18.104.22.168.2. Sig. Pietro Cordorato, married (1) 1771 Valletta to Margherita Clerier of France, married (2) 1779 Valletta to Filippa Xermini.
22.214.171.124.3. Rosa Cordorato, married 1777 Valletta to Sig. Gio Epifano Zammit, with issue.
126.96.36.199.3.1. Fortunato Zammit, married 1808 Cospicua to Rosaria Busuttil.
10. Geronima de Piro., married 1627 at Valletta to Don Giulio San Severino dei Baroni di Marcellinara.
Footnote: After his wife Cornelia died, Lorenzo Ubaldesco took up Holy Orders, eventually being appointed Archdeacon of the Cathedral.
* Dr. Gio Pio de Piro, JUD.(1670-1752) 1st Baron di Budaq (Cr:1716), 1st Marquis de Piro, (Cr:1742) Married 1693 to Anna Gourgion, with issue
Had issue also from Mistress
1. Nobile Angelo de Piro, Canon of the Cathedral, dunm.
2. Nobile Rev. Giulio de Piro, dunm.
3. Nobile Antonio Felicissimo de Piro, (died 1738, before his father), married (2) 1733 to Eleanora Constazo (See Paganica), and dsp., Married (1) 1729 to Caterina Dorell and also dsp. Married (3) 1736 to Elena Grech Balsani, with issue.
3.1. Nobile Francesco Saverio de Piro, (1731-died as an infant).
3.2. Don Vincenzo de Piro –See Footnotes below and links
3.2.1. Don Antonio de Piro, (1758-1806), married 1790 to Teresa Campanella nee dello Re. with issue –See Footnotes below and links, see also http://www.maltagenealogy.com/libro%20d'oro/depiro1.html
3.2.2. Don Giuseppe de Piro-Gourgion, CMG. (died 1857), married 1810 to Gaetana Borg Madiona, with issue see
188.8.131.52. Don Adriano de Piro-Gourgion, (1817-1866), dunm.
184.108.40.206. Don Dr Carmelo de Piro, MD,(1820-69), married 1844 to Gerolama Sceberras D'Amico-Inguanez (See Djar il-Bniet and Buqana) , with issue. –See Footnotes below and links, see alsohttp://www.maltagenealogy.com/libro%20d'oro/depiro2.html
3.3. Dona Eugenia de Piro.
4. Dona Maria Antonia de Piro, married 1713 to Bartolomeo Vella-Mompalao, dsp.
5. Dona Eugenia de Piro, married 1729 to Ferdinand de Ribera (See San Paolino), with issue
(Other issue of Gio Pio not within the remainder)
6. (illegitimate from the Baroness Celestri)(*1) Margarita Celestri, married 1716 Salvazio Caruana, with issue.
6.1. Salvatore Caruana, married 1758 Mdina to Teresa Chercop.
6.2. Fra. Pio Caruana, Abbott, (d. 1796), dunm.
6.3. Suor Margarita Caruana, 'Nun', dunm.
6.4. Angela Caruana, d.inf.
7. (illegitimate from Rosa "Manumessa")(*2) Guiseppe de Siero sive De Piro (1688-), married (1) to Anna N, married (2) 1722 to Teresa Debono (d/o Mastro Francesco and Anna)., with issue
7.1. (First Marriage or Union) Francesca de Piro, married 1706 Valletta to Dr Matteo D'Arena, with issue.
7.1.1. Anna Maria D'Arena, married 1725 Valletta to Salvatore Tedesco, with issue.
220.127.116.11. Giuseppe Tedesco, married 1766 Valletta to Mco Fedele Peralta.
18.104.22.168. Simeone Tedesco, married 1764 Valletta to Rosa Fleri.
22.214.171.124. Carlo Tedesco, married 1771 Valletta to Angelica Brignone, with issue.
126.96.36.199. Maria Tedesco, married 1761 Valletta to Giuseppe Graziani.
188.8.131.52. Gioacchino Tedesco, married (1) 1776 Valletta to Nicolina Corelli, married (2) 1824 Valletta to Francesca Decelis, with issue.
184.108.40.206.1. (First Marriage) Fedela Tedesco, married 1814 Valletta to Bartolomeo Bajardo, with issue.
220.127.116.11.1.1. Bernardetta Bajardo, married 1832 Valletta to Gio Battista Satariano.
18.104.22.168.1.2. Nicolina Bajardo, married 1839 Valletta to Antonio Xicluna.
7.1.2. Matteo D'Arena, married 1748 Valletta to Teresa Pace.
7.2. (Second Marriage) Matilda de Siero, (1725-)., married 1746 to Luigi Preziosi (See Preziosi)
7.3. Aloisea de Siero, (1728-)., Nun, dunm.
7.4. Giovanni Battista Desiero, (1730-1802), "Alleged" migrated to Imperia Russia and Created Baron Desiero and to his descendants by Tsar Paul I 1799 and Knight of St George of Russia and St John of Malta, married 1799 to Baroness Marie Bode-Kolgtcher., with issue.
Footnote#1: Gio Pio De Piro was one of the very first recipients of the right to Illustrissimo e Nobile. Owing to a great abuse which had crept in, of notaries and lawyers giving the style of Nobile and Illustrissimo to many persons indiscriminately in public documents, the Grand Master de Vilhena issued a Pragmatic in the year 1725 in which he criminalized such unauthorized use. A copy verbatim of the Pragmatic dated 30th April 1725 is found in the sub-Enclosure in Enclosure No. 3 in the letter from Governor Simmons to The Earl of Derby dated 28 October 1884 which is published in Copies or Extracts of Correspondence with reference to the Maltese Nobility (In Continuation of C-3812) presented to the House of Lords by Command of Her Majesty, May 1886. In the said copy verbatim, there is what appears to be an exhaustive list of the persons who at different times received from the said Grandmaster and his successors, an exception from the aforesaid pragmatic, thereby allowing them the right to use the styles of Most Illustrious and Noble, namely: (1) Milite Barone Marc' Antonio Inguanez (See Djar il-Bniet) and his wife Baronessa Inguanez (See Gomerino) (30 April 1725); (2)Barone di Cicciano Fabritio Testaferrata (See:Castel Cicciano) and his mother the Baronessa di Gomerino Beatrice Cassia Testaferrata (See Gomerino), (11 May 1725), (3) Marchese di San Vincenzo Ferreri Mario Testaferrata (See: San Vincenzo Ferreri) (9 July 1725), (4) Carlo Falson (See Falson), and Eleanora Testaferrata (See: Capo di Ferro) (13 June 1726), (5) Barone di San Marciano Diego Galea Feriolo (See: San Marciano), (2 September 1726), (6) Barone Gio Pio De Piro (See De Piro) (19 March 1727), (7) Canon Giuseppe di Costanzo (See Paganica), and Donna Rosa (See De Noto),widow of Gio Battista di Costanzo (24 May 1729), (8) Barone Isidoro Viani (See: Tabria), (27 June 1730), (9) D. Vincenzo Platamone (See Platamone),and Antonio Bonnici (??), (10) Baldassare Bonnici (13 January 1732), (11) Calcerano Mompalao (See: Mompalao)), Giuseppe and Caterina Cuschieri (See: Frigenuini) (6 March 1732), (12) Barone Saverio Gatt (See: Benwarrad) (23 August 1737), (13) Signor Ludovico Bianchi (See: Bianchi) (25 October 1741), (14) Dr.Ugolino Bonnici (5 September 1794), (15) Dr. Saverio Crispo (See:Crispo) (??) See also: http://www.maltagenealogy.com/SME/mostillustriousandnoble.htmlhttp://www.saidvassallo.com/SME/maltesenobility/mostillustriousnoble.htm http://www.saidvassallo.com/SME/maltesenobility.htm
Footnote#2: The title of Marchese De Piro was conferred in Spain by Philip V, King of Spain, by a patent of the 6th November 1742, on the Barone Gio Pio De Piro. It is a Spanish title and regulated by Spanish law. See notes in http://www.maltagenealogy.com/libro%20d'oro/depiro1.html and links from there.
Footnote#3: The title of Barone di Budack was conferred by Grand Master Perellos, by a diploma of the 23rd April 1716 to Gio Pio De Piro. See notes in http://www.maltagenealogy.com/libro%20d'oro/depiro2.html and links from there.
FOR MALTESE TITLES OF NOBILITY PLEASE SEE:-
FOR MALTESE FIEFS PLEASE SEE:-
FOR FOREIGN TITLES IN MALTA PLEASE SEE:-
FOR PRECEDENCE IN MALTA AMONGST HOLDERS OF FIEFS, LOCAL TITLES AND OF FOREIGN TITLES, PLEASE SEE:-
FOR MALTESE HERALDRY PLEASE SEE:-