Last update: 06/02/2021
Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
23 Sep 1983 B[L] 1 Donald Kaberry                         18 Aug 1907 13 Mar 1991 83
to     Created Baron Kaberry of Adel for life
13 Mar 1991 23 Sep 1983                          
MP for Leeds Northwest 1950-1983
Peerage extinct on his death
22 Sep 1981 B[L] 1 Sir Lawrence Kadoorie                                      2 Jun 1899 25 Aug 1993 94
to     Created Baron Kadoorie for life 22 Sep 1981
25 Aug 1993 Peerage extinct on his death
30 Jun 1976 B[L] 1 Sir Joseph Kagan 6 Jun 1915 18 Jan 1995 79
to     Created Baron Kagan for life 30 Jun 1976
18 Jan 1995 Peerage extinct on his death
For further information of this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
6 Jul 1965 B[L] 1 Richard Ferdinand Kahn 10 Aug 1905 6 Jun 1989 83
to     Created Baron Kahn for life 6 Jul 1965
6 Jun 1989 Peerage extinct on his death
22 Mar 2010 B[L] 1 Ajay Kumar Kakkar 28 Apr 1964
Created Baron Kakkar for life 22 Mar 2010
PC 2014
9 Jul 1974 B[L] 1 Nicholas Kaldor 12 May 1908 30 Sep 1986 78
to     Created Baron Kaldor for life 9 Jul 1974
30 Sep 1986 Peerage extinct on his death
1 Jun 2004 B[L] 1 Sir Harold Stanley Kalms 21 Nov 1931
Created Baron Kalms for life 1 Jun 2004
28 Jan 2021 B[L] 1 Professor Syed Salah Kamall 15 Feb 1967
Created Baron Kamall for life 28 Jan 2021
23 Dec 1839 B 1 John Keane 6 Feb 1781 26 Aug 1844 63
Created Baron Keane 23 Dec 1839
26 Aug 1844 2 Edward Arthur Wellington Keane 4 May 1815 25 Jul 1882 67
25 Jul 1882 3 John Manly Arbuthnot Keane 1 Sep 1816 27 Nov 1901 85
to     Peerage extinct on his death
27 Nov 1901
5 Feb 1970 B[L] 1 Sir Christopher Frank Kearton 17 Feb 1911 2 Jul 1992 81
to     Created Baron Kearton for life 5 Feb 1970
2 Jul 1992 Peerage extinct on his death
28 Jun 1921 E 1 George Nathaniel Curzon,1st Earl Curzon of 11 Jan 1859 20 Mar 1925 66
Created Earl of Kedleston and Marquess
Curzon of Kedleston 28 Jun 1921
Peerages extinct on his death
8 Jun 2015 B[L] 1 Richard Sanderson Keen 29 Mar 1954
Created Baron Keen of Elie for life 8 Jun 2015
16 Mar 1797 B[I] 1 George Keith Elphinstone 7 Jan 1746 10 Mar 1823 77
15 Dec 1801 B 1 Created Baron Keith [I] 16 Mar 1797,
to     Baron Keith [UK] 15 Dec 1801 and 
10 Mar 1823 17 Sep 1803 and Viscount Keith
17 Sep 1803 B 1 1 Jun 1814
For details of the special remainders included in the
creations of the Baronies of 1797 and 1803,see the 
notes at the foot of this page
1 Jun 1814 V 1 MP for Dunbartonshire 1781-1790 and Stirlingshire
to     1796-1801
10 Mar 1823 On his death the Viscountcy, and the Barony
of 1801 became extinct,whilst the Barony
of 1797 and the Barony of 1803 passed to -
10 Mar 1823 2 Margaret de la Billardrie 12 Jun 1788 11 Nov 1867 79
to     She subsequently [1837] succeeded as Baroness
11 Nov 1867 Nairne in her own right (7th in line). On her death
the Keith peerages became extinct,while the
Barony of Nairne passed to her daughter - see
that title
4 Nov 1953 B[L] 1 James Keith 20 May 1886 29 Jun 1964 78
to     Created Baron Keith of Avonholm for life
29 Jun 1964 4 Nov 1953
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1953-1961.
PC 1953
Peerage extinct on his death
6 Feb 1980 B[L] 1 Sir Kenneth Alexander Keith 30 Aug 1916 1 Sep 2004 88
to     Created Baron Keith of Castleacre for life
1 Sep 2004 6 Feb 1980
Peerage extinct on his death
20 Jun 1677 B[S] 1 John Keith 12 Apr 1715
Created Lord Keith of Inverury and
Earl of Kintore 20 Jun 1677
see "Kintore"
10 Jan 1977 B[L] 1 Sir Henry Shanks Keith 7 Feb 1922 21 Jun 2002 80
to     Created Baron Keith of Kinkel for life
21 Jun 2002 10 Jan 1977
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1977-1996
PC 1976
Peerage extinct on his death
12 Apr 1703 V[S] 1 David Boyle 1666 1 Nov 1733 67
Created Lord Boyle of Kelburn,
Stewartoun,Cumbra,Largs and Dalry
31 Jan 1699, and Lord Boyle of
and Dalry,Viscount of Kelburn and
Earl of Glasgow 12 Apr 1703
See "Glasgow"
26 Jun 1893 B 1 Francis Archibald Douglas 3 Feb 1867 19 Oct 1894 27
to     Created Baron Kelhead 26 Jun 1893
19 Oct 1894 Peerage extinct on his death
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
12 Mar 1619 E[S] 1 Thomas Erskine 1566 12 Jun 1639 72
Created Lord Dirletoun 8 Jul 1604
Viscount Fentoun 18 Mar 1606 and
Earl of Kellie 12 Mar 1619
KG 1615
12 Jun 1639 2 Thomas Erskine c 1615 3 Feb 1643
3 Feb 1643 3 Alexander Erskine May 1677
May 1677 4 Alexander Erskine 14 Sep 1677 8 Mar 1710 32
8 Mar 1710 5 Alexander Erskine 3 Apr 1756
3 Apr 1756 6 Thomas Alexander Erskine 1 Sep 1732 9 Oct 1781 49
9 Oct 1781 7 Archibald Erskine 22 Apr 1736 8 May 1797 61
8 May 1797 8 Sir Charles Erskine,8th baronet 1764 28 Oct 1799 35
28 Oct 1799   9 Thomas Erskine c 1745 6 Feb 1828
Lord Lieutenant Fife 1824-1828
For information on this peer's wife,see the
note at the foot of this page
6 Feb 1828 10 Methven Erskine c 1750 3 Dec 1829
For information on this peer's wife,see the
note at the foot of this page
3 Dec 1829 11 John Francis Miller Erskine 28 Dec 1795 19 Jun 1866 70
He had previously succeeded to the Earldom
of Mar (qv) in 1828 with which title this 
peerage then merged and so remains
25 Apr 1707 E[S] 1 John Ker c 1680 24 Feb 1741
Created Lord Ker of Cessfurd and
Cavertoun,Viscount of Broxmouth,
Earl of Kelso,Marquess of Bowmont
and Cessfurd and Duke of Roxburghe
25 Apr 1707
See "Roxburghe"
11 Jun 1997 B[L] 1 Henry Paul Guinness Channon 9 Oct 1935 27 Jan 2007 71
to     Created Baron Kelvedon for life 11 Jun 1997
27 Jan 2007 MP for Southend West 1959-1997. Minister
of State,Northern Ireland 1972. Minister of
Housing and Construction 1972-1974.
Minister of State,Civil Service 1979-1981.
Minister for the Arts 1981-1983. Minister of
Trade 1983-1986. Secretary of State for
Trade and Industry 1986-1987. Secretary
of State for Transport 1987-1989. PC 1980
Peerage extinct on his death
23 Feb 1892 B 1 Sir William Thomson 26 Jun 1824 17 Dec 1907 83
to     Created Baron Kelvin 23 Feb 1892
17 Dec 1907 PC 1902  OM 1902
Peerage extinct on his death
12 Sep 1945 V 1 Sir James Gomer Berry,1st baronet 7 May 1883 6 Feb 1968 84
Created Baron Kemsley 3 Feb 1936 and
Viscount Kemsley 12 Sep 1945
6 Feb 1968 2 Geoffrey Lionel Berry 29 Jun 1909 28 Feb 1999 89
MP for Buckingham 1943-1945
28 Feb 1999 3 Richard Gomer Berry 17 Apr 1951
16 May 1414 E 1 John Plantagenet 20 Jun 1389 14 Sep 1435 46
to     Created Earl of Kendal and Duke of
14 Sep 1435 Bedford 16 May 1414
See "Bedford"
28 Aug 1443 E 1 John Beaufort 1404 27 May 1444 39
to       Created Earl of Kendal and Duke of
27 May 1444 Somerset 28 Aug 1443
Peerages extinct on his death
c 1446 E 1 John de Foix c 1485
to     Created Earl of Kendal c 1446
1462 KG 1446
He surrendered the peerage in 1462
1666 D 1 Charles Stuart 4 Jul 1666 22 May 1667  -    
to     Designated Baron of Holdenby,Earl of
22 May 1667 Wigmore and Duke of Kendal 1666
3rd son of James II
Peerages extinct on his death
9 Apr 1689 E 1 George,Prince of Denmark 2 Apr 1653 28 Oct 1708 55
to     Created Baron Ockingham,Earl of
28 Oct 1708 Kendal and Duke of Cumberland
9 Apr 1689
Husband of Queen Anne. KG 1684  PC 1685
Peerages extinct on his death
19 Mar 1719 D[L] 1 Ermengarde Melusina Schulenberg 25 Dec 1667 10 May 1743 75
to     Created Baroness of Dundalk,
10 May 1743 Countess and Marchioness of 
Dungannon and Duchess of Munster for life
18 Jul 1716,and Baroness Glastonbury,
Countess of Feversham and Duchess
of Kendal for life 19 Mar 1719
Mistress of George I
Peerages extinct on her death
For further information on this peeress,see the
note at the foot of this page
24 May 1784 B 1 James Lowther 5 Aug 1736 24 May 1802 65
to     Created Baron Lowther,Baron of the 
24 May 1802 Barony of Kendal,Baron of the Barony
of Burgh,Viscount of Lonsdale,
Viscount of Lowther and Earl of 
Lonsdale 24 May 1784
Peerages extinct on his death
10 Jun 1937 B 1 Sir John Davenport Siddeley 5 Aug 1866 3 Nov 1953 87
Created Baron Kenilworth 10 Jun 1937
3 Nov 1953 2 Cyril Davenport Siddleley 27 Aug 1894 11 Aug 1971 76
11 Aug 1971 3 John Tennant Davenport Siddeley 24 Jan 1924 26 Dec 1981 57
26 Dec 1981 4 John Randle Siddeley 16 Jun 1954
10 Sep 1831 B 1 Thomas Taylour,2nd Marquess of Headfort 4 May 1787 6 Dec 1870 83
Created Baron Kenlis 10 Sep 1831
See "Headfort"
3 Jan 1801 E[I] 1 Sir Valentine Browne,7th baronet Jan 1754 3 Oct 1812 58
Created Baron Castlerosse and 
Viscount Kenmare 12 Feb 1798, and
Viscount Castlerosse and Earl of 
Kenmare 3 Jan 1801
3 Oct 1812 2 Valentine Browne 15 Jan 1788 31 Oct 1853 65
17 Aug 1841 B 1 Created Baron Kenmare 17 Aug 1841
to     Lord Lieutenant Kerry 1831-1853
31 Oct 1853 PC [I] 1834
On his death the Barony became extinct
whilst the Earldom passed to -
31 Oct 1853 3 Thomas Browne 15 Jan 1789 26 Dec 1871 82
12 Mar 1856 B 1 Created Baron Kenmare 12 Mar 1856
26 Dec 1871 4 Valentine Augustus Browne 16 May 1825 9 Feb 1905 79
2 MP for Kerry 1852-1871. Lord Lieutenant
Kerry 1866-1905.  PC 1857  KP 1872
9 Feb 1905 5 Valentine Charles Browne 1 Dec 1860 14 Nov 1941 80
3 Lord Lieutenant Kerry 1905-1922
14 Nov 1941 6 Valentine Edward Charles Browne 29 May 1891 20 Sep 1943 52
20 Sep 1943 7 Gerald Ralph Desmond Browne 20 Dec 1896 14 Feb 1952 55
to     5 Peerages extinct on his death
14 Feb 1952
8 May 1633 V[S] 1 Sir John Gordon,2nd baronet c 1600 12 Sep 1634
Created Lord Lochinvar and Viscount 
of Kenmure 8 May 1633
12 Sep 1634 2 John Gordon 10 Dec 1634 Aug 1639 4
Aug 1639 3 John Gordon 1620 Oct 1643 23
Oct 1643 4 Robert Gordon Nov 1622 27 Feb 1663 40
27 Feb 1663 5 Alexander Gordon 20 Apr 1698
20 Apr 1698 6 William Gordon 24 Feb 1716
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
24 Feb 1716
[24 Feb 1716]   Robert Gordon 1714 10 Aug 1741 27
[10 Aug 1741]   John Gordon 1713 16 Jun 1769 55
[16 Jun 1769] William Gordon c 1748 7 Feb 1772
[7 Feb 1772] John Gordon 1750 21 Sep 1840 90
17 Jun 1824 7 Restored to the peerage 1824
MP for Kirkcudbright 1784-1786
21 Sep 1840 8 Adam Gordon 9 Jan 1792 1 Sep 1847 55
to     On his death the peerage became dormant
1 Sep 1847 For further information on a claim made to these
peerages,see the note at the foot of this page
c 1452 B[S] 1 Gilbert Kennedy c 1406 c 1480
Created Lord Kennedy c 1452
c 1480 2 John Kennedy 1508
1508 3 David Kennedy 9 Sep 1513
He was created Earl of Cassillis (qv) 
c 1509 with which title this peerage then
19 Sep 2013 B[L] 1 Alicia Pamela Kennedy 22 Mar 1969
Created Baroness Kennnedy of Cradley for life
19 Sep 2013
21 Jun 2010 B[L] 1 Roy Francis Kennedy 9 Nov 1962
Created Baron Kennedy of Southwark for
life 21 Jun 2010
27 Oct 1997 B[L] 1 Helena Ann Kennedy 12 May 1950
Created Baroness Kennedy of the Shaws
for life 27 Oct 1997
15 Jul 1935 B 1 Sir Edward Hilton Young 26 Mar 1879 11 Jul 1960 81
Created Baron Kennet 15 Jul 1935
MP for Norwich 1915-1923 and 1924-1929,
and Sevenoaks 1929-1935. Financial 
Secretary to the Treasury 1921-1923.
Minister of Health 1931-1935.  PC 1922
11 Jul 1960 2 Wayland Hilton Young 2 Aug 1923 7 May 2009 85
7 May 2009 3 William Aldus Thoby Young 24 May 1957
27 Jul 1726 E 1 William Augustus 15 Apr 1721 31 Oct 1765 44
to     Created Baron of Alderney,Viscount
31 Oct 1765 Trematon,Earl of Kennington,Marquess
of Berkhampstead and Duke of
Cumberland 27 Jul 1726
Second son of George II. KG 1730  PC 1746
Peerage extinct on his death
12 Jun 1866 B 1 Edwin Richard Wyndham Wyndham-Quin,
3rd Earl of Dunraven and Mount Earl 19 May 1812 6 Oct 1871 59
Created Baron Kenry 12 Jun 1866
6 Oct 1871 2 Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin,4th Earl of
to     Dunraven and Mount Earl 12 Feb 1841 14 Jun 1926 85
14 Jun 1926 Peerage extinct on his death
24 Sep 1624 B 1 Henry Rich 19 Aug 1590 9 Mar 1649 58
Created Baron Kensington 5 Mar 1623
and Earl Holland 24 Sep1624
See "Holland"
20 Jul 1776 B[I] 1 William Edwardes c 1711 13 Dec 1801
Created Baron Kensington 20 Jul 1776
MP for Haverfordwest 1747-1784 and
13 Dec 1801 2 William Edwardes 24 Apr 1777 10 Aug 1852 75
MP for Haverfordwest 1802-1818
10 Aug 1852 3 William Edwardes 3 Feb 1801 1 Jan 1872 70
Lord Lieutenant Pembroke 1861-1872
1 Jan 1872 4 William Edwardes 11 May 1835 7 Oct 1896 61
23 Mar 1886 B 1 Created Baron Kensington 23 Mar 1886
MP for Haverfordwest 1868-1885. Lord
Lieutenant Pembroke 1872-1896.  PC 1880
7 Oct 1896 5 William Edwardes 25 Jul 1868 24 Jun 1900 31
24 Jun 1900 6 Hugh Edwardes 3 Sep 1873 4 Mar 1938 64
4 Mar 1938 7 William Edwardes 15 May 1904 19 Aug 1981 77
19 Aug 1981 8 Hugh Ivor Edwardes 24 Nov 1933
27 Jun 1951 B 1 Ernest Albert Whitfield 15 Sep 1887 21 Apr 1963 75
Created Baron Kenswood 27 Jun 1951
Lord Kenswood was blind from his early 20s
21 Apr 1963 2 John Michael Howard Whitfield 6 Apr 1930 2 Jul 2016 86
2 Jul 2016 3 Michael Christopher Whitfield 3 Jul 1955
1067 E 1 Odo,Bishop of Bayeux c 1030 Feb 1097
to     Created Earl of Kent 1067
May 1088 He was deprived of the peerage in May 1088
1141 E 1 William de Ipres by 1115 24 Dec 1162
to     Created Earl of Kent 1141
1155 He was deprived of the peerage in 1155
11 Feb 1227 E 1 Hubert de Burgh c 1175 12 May 1243
to     Created Earl of Kent 11 Feb 1227
12 May 1243 Peerage extinct on his death
28 Jul 1321 E 1 Edmund Plantagenet,Lord Woodstock 5 Aug 1301 19 Mar 1330 28
to     Created Earl of Kent 28 Jul 1321
19 Mar 1330 5th son of Edward I
He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
1331 2 Edmund Plantagenet c 1328 1333
Restored to the peerage 1331
1333 3 John Plantagenet 7 Apr 1330 27 Dec 1352 22
27 Dec 1352 4 Joan Holand 1331 8 Jul 1385 54
She married -
20 Nov 1360 1 Thomas de Holand 28 Dec 1360
Created Earl of Kent 20 Nov 1360
KG 1348
28 Dec 1360 2 Thomas de Holand 1350 25 Apr 1397 46
KG 1376
25 Apr 1397 3 Thomas de Holand,later [Sep 1397] 1st  1374 6 Jan 1400 25
Duke of Surrey 
KG 1397
6 Jan 1400 4 Edmund de Holand 6 Jan 1384 18 Sep 1408 24
to     KG 1403
18 Sep 1408 Peerage extinct on his death
30 Jun 1461 E 1 William Nevill 9 Jan 1463
to     Created Earl of Kent 30 Jun 1461
9 Jan 1463 KG 1440
Peerage extinct on his death
20 May 1465 E 1 Edmund Grey,4th Lord Grey de Ruthyn c 1420 22 May 1489
Created Earl of Kent 20 May 1465
22 May 1489 2 George Grey c 1460 21 Dec 1503
21 Dec 1503 3 Richard Grey 1481 3 May 1524 42
KG 1505
3 May 1524 4 Henry Grey c 1495 24 Sep 1562
24 Sep 1562 5 Reginald Grey 17 Mar 1573
17 Mar 1573 6 Henry Grey 1541 31 Jan 1615 73
Lord Lieutenant Bedford 1587
31 Jan 1615 7 Charles Grey c 1545 26 Sep 1623
26 Sep 1623 8 Henry Grey c 1583 21 Nov 1639
21 Nov 1639 9 Anthony Grey 1557 9 Nov 1643 86
9 Nov 1643 10 Henry Grey 24 Nov 1594 28 May 1651 56
MP for Leicestershire 1640-1643. Lord
Lieutenant Rutland 1644 and Bedford 1646
28 May 1651 11 Anthony Grey 11 Jun 1645 19 Aug 1702 57
19 Aug 1702 12 Henry Grey 28 Sep 1671 5 Jun 1740 68
28 Apr 1710 D 1 Created Viscount Goderich,Earl of
to     Harold and Marquess of Kent 14 Nov
5 Jun 1740 1706,Duke of Kent 28 Apr 1710 and Marquess
Grey 19 May 1740 (qv)
Lord Privy Seal 1719-1720. Lord Lieutenant
Hampshire 1704-1715, Bedford 1711-1740,
Buckingham 1711-1712 and Herefordshire
1704-1714. PC 1704  KG 1712
All peerages (except the Marquessate of Grey) 
extinct on his death
24 Apr 1799 D 1 Edward Augustus 2 Nov 1767 23 Jan 1820 52
to     Created Earl of Dublin and Duke of 
23 Jan 1820 Kent and Strathearn 24 Apr 1799
4th son of George III. KP 1783  KG 1786.
Governor of Gibraltar 1802-1820. PC 1799
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
Peerage extinct on his death
24 May 1866 E 1 Alfred Ernest Albert 6 Aug 1844 30 Jul 1900 55
to     Created Earl of Ulster,Earl of Kent 
30 Jul 1900 and Duke of Edinburgh 24 May 1866
KG 1863 KT 1864 PC 1866 KP 1880
Peerages extinct on his death
12 Oct 1934 D 1 H.R.H. George Edward Alexander Edmund 20 Dec 1902 25 Aug 1942 39
Created Baron Downpatrick,Earl of
St.Andrews and Duke of Kent
12 Oct 1934
4th son of George V.  KG 1923  KT 1935
PC 1937
25 Aug 1942 2 H.R.H. Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick 9 Oct 1935
KG 1985
9 Jun 1788 B 1 Sir Lloyd Kenyon,1st baronet 5 Oct 1732 4 Apr 1802 69
Created Baron Kenyon 9 Jun 1788
MP for Hindon 1780-1784 and Tregony 1784-
1788. Attorney General 1782-1783 and 
1783-1784. Master of the Rolls 1784-1788.
Chief Justice of the Kings Bench 1788-1804
Lord Lieutenant Flint 1796-1798  PC 1784
4 Apr 1802 2 George Kenyon 22 Jul 1776 25 Feb 1855 78
25 Feb 1855 3 Lloyd Kenyon 1 Apr 1805 14 Jul 1869 64
MP for St.Michaels 1830-1832
14 Jul 1869 4 Lloyd Tyrell-Kenyon 5 Jul 1864 30 Nov 1927 63
Lord Lieutenant Denbigh 1918-1927
30 Nov 1927 5 Lloyd Tyrell-Kenyon 13 Sep 1917 16 May 1993 75
16 May 1993 6 Lloyd Tyrell-Kenyon 13 Jul 1947 2019
2019 7 Lloyd Nicholas Tyrell-Kenyon 1972
22 Apr 1782 V 1 Augustus Keppel 2 Apr 1725 2 Jun 1786 61
to     Created Viscount Keppel 22 Apr 1782
2 Jun 1786 MP for Chichester 1755-1761, Windsor
1761-1780 and Surrey 1780-1782. First Lord
of the Admiralty 1782-1783 and 1783. 
PC 1782
Peerage extinct on his death
18 Sep 1616 B[S] 1 Sir Robert Ker c 1570 18 Jan 1650
Created Lord Roxburghe 29 Dec 1599
and Lord Ker of Cessfurd and 
Cavertoun and Earl of Roxburghe
18 Sep 1616
See "Roxburghe"
25 Apr 1707 B[S] 1 John Ker c 1680 24 Feb 1741
Created Lord Ker of Cessfurd and
Cavertoun,Viscount of Broxmouth,
Earl of Kelso,Marquess of Bowmont
and Cessfurd and Duke of Roxburghe
25 Apr 1707
See "Roxburghe"
17 Jul 1821 B 1 William Kerr,6th Marquess of Lothian 4 Oct 1763 27 Apr 1824 60
Created Baron Ker of Kersheugh
17 Jul 1821
See "Lothian"
24 Jun 1633 B[S] 1 Robert Carr 1578 1654 76
Created Lord Kerr of Nisbet,
Langnewtoun and Dolphinstoun and
Earl of Ancram 24 Jun 1633
See "Ancram"
24 May 1722 E 1 Robert Ker,later [1741] 2nd Duke of Roxburgh c 1709 23 Aug 1755
Created Baron Ker and Earl Ker of
Wakefield 24 May 1722
See "Roxburghe" - peerages extinct 1804
1 May 1947 V 1 Archibald Percival Wavell,1st Viscount Wavell 5 May 1883 24 May 1950 67
Created Viscount Keren and Earl Wavell
1 May 1947
See "Wavell"
30 Jun 2004 B[L] 1 Sir John Olav Kerr 22 Feb 1942
Created Baron Kerr of Kinlochard for life
30 Jun 2004
22 Nov 2010 B[L] 1 Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr,13th Marquess
of Lothian 7 Jul 1945
Created Baron Kerr of Monteviot for life
22 Nov 2010
23 Jun 1701 B[S] 1 Robert Kerr 8 Mar 1636 15 Feb 1703 66
Created Lord Kerr of Newbottle,
Viscount of Briene,Earl of Ancram and
Marquess of Lothian 23 Jun 1701
See "Lothian"
29 Jun 2009 B[L] 1 Sir Brian Francis Kerr 22 Feb 1948 1 Dec 2020 72
to Created Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore for life
1 Dec 2020 29 Jun 2009
Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland 2004-2009
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 2009  Justice of the     
Supreme Court 2009-           PC 2003
Peerage extinct on his death
27 Jan 1332 B 1 Roger de Kerdeston c 1273 1 Jul 1337
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Kerdeston 27 Jan 1332
1 Jul 1337 2 William de Kerdeston 1307 14 Oct 1361 54
to     On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
14 Oct 1361
c 1223 B[I] 1 Thomas Fitzmaurice c 1260
Created Baron of Kerry c 1223
c 1260 2 Maurice Fitzthomas Fitzmaurice 1303
1303 3 Nicholas Fitzmaurice 1324
1324 4 Maurice Fitzmaurice Oct 1339
Oct 1339 5 John Fitzmaurice 1348
1348 6 Maurice Fitzmaurice 1398
1398 7 Patrick Fitzmaurice c 1410
c 1410 8 Thomas Fitzmaurice 1469
1469 9 Edmond Fitzmaurice 1498
1498 10 Edmond Fitzmaurice 1543
He resigned the peerage in favour of -
c 1535 11 Edmond Fitzmaurice 1541
Created Baron Odorney and Viscount
Kilmaule 1537
1541 12 Patrick Fitzmaurice 1547
1547 13 Thomas Fitzmaurice 1549
1549 14 Edmond Fitzmaurice 1549
1549 15 Gerard Fitzmaurice 1 Aug 1550
1 Aug 1550 16 Thomas Fitzmaurice c 1502 16 Dec 1590
16 Dec 1590 17 Patrick Fitzthomas Fitzmaurice c 1541 12 Aug 1600
12 Aug 1600 18 Thomas Fitzmaurice 1574 3 Jun 1630 55
3 Jun 1630 19 Patrick Fitzmaurice 1595 5 Jan 1661 65
5 Jan 1661 20 William Fitzmaurice 1633 Mar 1697 63
Mar 1697 21 Thomas Fitzmaurice 1668 16 Mar 1741 72
17 Jan 1723 E[I] 1 Created Viscount Clanmaurice and 
Earl of Kerry 17 Jan 1723
PC [I] by 1711
16 Mar 1741 2 William Fitzmaurice 2 Mar 1694 4 Apr 1747 53
PC [I] 1746
4 Apr 1747 3 Francis Thomas Fitzmaurice 9 Sep 1740 4 Jul 1818 77
4 Jul 1818 4 Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice 2 Jul 1780 31 Jan 1863 82
He had previously succeeded to the Marquessate
of Lansdowne (qv) in 1809 with which title this
peerage then merged and so remains
20 Jan 1947 B 1 Fred Kershaw 6 Nov 1881 5 Feb 1961 79
Created Baron Kershaw 20 Jan 1947
5 Feb 1961 2 Herbert Kershaw 21 Aug 1904 18 Jul 1961 56
18 Jul 1961   3 Edward Aubrey Kershaw 29 Aug 1906 22 Feb 1962 55
22 Feb 1962 4 Edward John Kershaw 12 May 1936
17 Mar 2015 B[L] 1 Sir Robert Walker Kerslake 28 Feb 1955
Created Baron Kerslake for life 17 Mar 2015
24 Jan 2011 B[L] 1 Jonathan Andrew Kestenbaum 5 Aug 1959
Created Baron Kestenbaum for life 
24 Jan 2011
15 Apr 1868 B 1 Sir John Trollope,7th baronet 5 May 1800 17 Dec 1874 74
Created Baron Kesteven 15 Apr 1868
MP for Lincolnshire South 1841-1868. 
Chief Commissioner of the Poor Law Board
1852.  PC 1852
17 Dec 1874 2 John Henry Trollope 22 Sep 1851 23 Jul 1915 63
23 Jul 1915 3 Thomas Carew Trollope 1 May 1891 5 Nov 1915 24
to     Peerage extinct on his death
5 Nov 1915
22 Jan 1943 B 1 Sir Roger John Brownlow Keyes,1st baronet 4 Oct 1872 26 Dec 1945 73
Created Baron Keyes 22 Jan 1943
MP for Portsmouth North 1934-1943. 
Admiral of the Fleet 1930
For information on his son,Geoffrey Charles Tasker
Keyes VC,see the note at the foot of this page
26 Dec 1945 2 Roger George Bowlby Keyes 14 Mar 1919 4 Mar 2005 85
4 Mar 2005 3 Charles William Packe Keyes 8 Dec 1951
6 Jul 1942 B 1 John Maynard Keynes 5 Jun 1883 21 Apr 1946 62
to     Created Baron Keynes 6 Jul 1942
21 Apr 1946 Peerage extinct on his death
4 Feb 2021 B[L] 1 Wajid Iltaf Khan 15 Oct 1979
Created Baron Khan of Burnley for life 4 Feb 2021
26 Jun 2012 B[L] 1 Beeban Kidron 2 May 1961
Created Baroness Kidron for life 26 Jun 2012
10 Apr 1703 B[S] 1 John Lindsay-Crawford 12 May 1669 24 Dec 1708 39
Created Lord Kilbirny,Kingsburn and Drumry,
and Viscount of Mount Crawford 10 Apr 1703.
These titles were altered,26 Nov 1703,to
Lord Kilbirny and Drumry,and Viscount of 
See "Garnock"
8 Dec 1909 B 1 Sir John Arthur Godley 17 Jun 1847 27 Jun 1932 85
Created Baron Kilbracken 8 Dec 1909
27 Jun 1932 2 Hugh John Godley 12 Jun 1877 13 Oct 1950 73
13 Oct 1950 3 John Raymond Godley 17 Oct 1920 14 Aug 2006 85
14 Aug 2006 4 Christopher John Godley 1 Jan 1945
4 Oct 1971 B[L] 1 Charles James Dalrymple Shaw 15 Aug 1906 10 Sep 1989 83
to     Created Baron Kilbrandon for life 4 Oct 1971
10 Sep 1989 Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1971-1977
PC 1971
Peerage extinct on his death
17 Jul 2001 B[L] 1 John David Taylor 24 Dec 1937
Created Baron Kilclooney for life 17 Jul 2001
MP for Strangford 1983-2001. PC [NI] 1971
25 Nov 1797 B[I] 1 William Power Keating Trench 1741 27 Apr 1805 63
Created Baron Kilconnel 25 Nov 1797,
Viscount Dunlo 3 Jan 1801 and Earl of
Clancarty 12 Feb 1803
See "Clancarty"
1 Apr 1647 V[I] 1 Charles Lambart,2nd Baron Cavan Mar 1600 25 Jun 1660 60
Created Viscount Kilcoursie and Earl 
of Cavan 1 Apr 1647
See "Cavan"
Sep 1535 B[I] 1 Sir Thomas Eustace c 1480 31 Jul 1549
Created Baron Kilcullen Sep 1535 and
Viscount Baltinglass 29 Jun 1541
See "Baltinglass"
14 Mar 1316 E[I] 1 John FitzThomas FitzGerald,7th Lord FitzGerald c 1250 10 Sep 1316
of Offaly
Created Earl of Kildare 14 Mar 1316
10 Sep 1316 2 Thomas FitzJohn FitzGerald 9 Apr 1328
Lord Justice of Ireland 1320-1321 and
9 Apr 1328 3 Richard FitzThomas FitzGerald 1317 7 Jul 1329 12
7 Jul 1329 4 Maurice FitzThomas FitzGerald 1318 25 Aug 1390 72
25 Aug 1390 5 Gerald FitzMaurice FitzGerald 1410
1410 6 John FitzGerald 17 Oct 1427
17 Oct 1427 7 Thomas FitzGerald 25 Mar 1477
Lord Justice of Ireland 1460-1461 and 1468-
1475. Lord Chancellor of Ireland 1463-1467
Lord Deputy of Ireland 1471-1475
25 Mar 1477 8 Gerald FitzGerald c 1456 3 Sep 1513
Lord Justice or Lord Deputy of Ireland
1477-1513.  KG 1505
3 Sep 1513 9 Gerald FitzGerald 1487 13 Dec 1534 47
13 Dec 1534 10 Thomas FitzGerald 1513 3 Feb 1537 23
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
1 May 1536 For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
13 May 1554 1 Gerald FitzGerald 28 Feb 1525 16 Nov 1585 60
23 Feb 1569 11 Created Baron Offaly and Earl of
Kildare 13 May 1554
Restored to the original Earldom 
23 Feb 1569
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
16 Nov 1585 2 Henry FitzGerald 1562 30 Sep 1597 35
30 Sep 1597 3 William FitzGerald Apr 1599
13 On his death the Earldom of 1554 became
extinct, whilst the original Earldom
passed to -
Apr 1599 14 Gerald FitzGerald 11 Feb 1612
11 Feb 1612 15 Gerald FitzGerald 26 Dec 1611 11 Nov 1620 8
11 Nov 1620 16 George FitzGerald 23 Jan 1612 1660 48
1660 17 Wentworth FitzGerald 1634 5 Mar 1664 29
MP for East Retford 1660-1661
5 Mar 1664 18 John FitzGerald c 1661 9 Nov 1707  
MP for Tregony 1694-1695
9 Nov 1707 19 Robert FitzGerald 4 May 1675 20 Feb 1744 68
PC [I] 1710
20 Feb 1744 20 James FitzGerald 29 May 1722 19 Nov 1773 51
Created Viscount Leinster 21 Feb 1747,
Earl of Offaly and Marquess of
Kildare 3 Mar 1761 and Duke of 
Leinster 26 Nov 1766
See "Leinster"
3 May 1870 B 1 Charles William FitzGerald,later [1874] 4th 
Duke of Leinster 30 Mar 1819 10 Feb 1887 67
Created Baron Kildare 3 May 1870
See "Leinster"
16 Jul 2018 B 1 HRH Henry Charles Albert David 15 Sep 1984
Created Baron Kilkeel, Earl of Dumbarton
and Duke of Sussex 19 May 2018
See "Sussex"
20 Dec 1793 E[I] 1 Edmund Butler,12th Viscount Mountgarret 6 Jan 1771 16 Jul 1846 75
to     Created Earl of Kilkenny 20 Dec 1793
16 Jul 1846 Peerage extinct on his death
15 Jun 1900 B 1 Sir Michael Morris,1st baronet 14 Nov 1826 8 Sep 1901 74
Created Baron Morris of Spiddal for life 5 Dec
1889 and Baron Killanin 15 Jun 1900
PC 1889
8 Sep 1901 2 Martin Henry Fitzpatrick Morris 22 Jul 1867 11 Aug 1927 60
MP for Galway 1900-1901. Lord Lieutenant
Galway 1918-1922.  PC [I] 1920
11 Aug 1927 3 Michael Morris 30 Jul 1914 25 Apr 1999 84
25 Apr 1999 4 George Redmond Fitzpatrick Morris 26 Jan 1947
17 Jul 1727 B[I] 1 John Monckton 1695 15 Jul 1751 56
Created Baron of Killard and Viscount
Galway 17 Jul 1727
See "Galway"
24 May 1892 D 1 H R H George Frederick Ernest Albert 3 Jun 1865 20 Jan 1936 70
to     Created Duke of York, Earl of Inverness 
6 May 1910 and Baron Killarney 24 May 1892
Second son of Edward VII.  KG 1884  
KT 1893  KP 1897
He succeeded to the throne as George V 
in 1910 when the peerage merged with the
3 Jun 1920 B 1 H R H Albert Frederick Arthur George 14 Dec 1895 6 Feb 1952 56
to     Created Baron Killarney,Earl of
11 Dec 1936 Inverness and Duke of York 3 Jun 1920
He succeeded to the throne as George VI
on 11 Dec 1936 when the peerages merged
with the Crown
17 May 1943 B 1 Sir Miles Wedderburn Lampson 24 Aug 1880 18 Sep 1964 84
Created Baron Killearn 17 May 1943
PC 1941
18 Sep 1964 2 Graham Curtis Lampson 28 Oct 1919 27 Jul 1996 76
27 Jul 1996 3 Victor Miles George Aldous Lampson 9 Sep 1941
c 1426 B[I] 1 Christopher Plunkett 1445
Created Baron Killeen c 1426
1445 2 Christopher Plunkett 1462
1462 3 Christopher Plunkett 1440 c 1469
c 1469 4 Edmond Plunkett c 1450 15 Aug 1510
15 Aug 1510 5 John Plunkett 19 Mar 1550
19 Mar 1550 6 Patrick Plunkett 1521 c 1556
c 1556 7 Christopher Plunkett c 1567
c 1567 8 James Plunkett by 1542 13 Jan 1595
13 Jan 1595 9 Christopher Plunkett 1564 12 Oct 1613 49
12 Oct 1613 10 Luke Plunkett 1589 29 Mar 1637 47
He was created Earl of Fingall  (qv) in 
1628 with which title this peerage then
15 Mar 1627 V[I] 1 Edward Conway 3 Feb 1631
Created Baron Conway 24 Mar 1624,
Viscount Killultagh 15 Mar 1627 and
Viscount Conway 26 Jun 1627
See "Conway"
23 Jul 1986 B 1 Andrew Albert Christian Edward 19 Feb 1960
Created Baron Killyleagh,Earl of
Inverness and Duke of York 23 Jul 1986
8 Feb 1722 B[I] 1 James O'Hara 1682 14 Jul 1773 91
to     Created Baron Kilmaine 8 Feb 1722
14 Jul 1773 He succeeded as 2nd Baron Tyrawley (qv) 
in 1724 - both peerages extinct on his death
21 Sep 1789 B[I] 1 Sir John Browne,7th baronet 1730 7 Jun 1794 63
Created Baron Kilmaine 21 Sep 1789
7 Jun 1794 2 James Caulfeild Browne 16 Mar 1765 23 May 1825 60
23 May 1825 3 John Cavendish Browne 11 Jun 1794 13 Jan 1873 78
13 Jan 1873 4 Francis William Browne 24 Mar 1843 9 Nov 1907 64
For further information on the death of this peer,
see the note at the foot of this page
9 Nov 1907 5 John Edward Deane Browne 18 Mar 1878 27 Aug 1946 68
For further information on the death of this peer,
see the note at the foot of this page
27 Aug 1946 6 John Francis Archibald Browne 22 Sep 1902 26 Jul 1978 75
26 Jul 1978 7 John David Henry Browne 2 Apr 1948 12 Jan 2013 64
12 Jan 2013 8 John Francis Sandford Browne 4 Apr 1983
2 Jun 1966 B[L] 1 Sir William John St.Clair Anstruther-Gray,
to     1st baronet 5 Mar 1905 6 Aug 1985 80
6 Aug 1985 Created Baron Kilmany for life 2 Jun 1966
MP for Lanark North 1931-1945 and 
Berwick and East Lothian 1951-1966. Lord
Lieutenant Fife 1975-1980. PC 1962
Peerage extinct on his death
7 Aug 1661 E[S] 1 William Boyd,10th Lord Boyd Mar 1692
Created Earl of Kilmarnock 7 Aug 1661
Mar 1692 2 William Boyd 20 May 1692
20 May 1692 3 William Boyd c 1684 Sep 1717
Sep 1717 4 William Boyd 12 May 1704 18 Aug 1746 42
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
18 Aug 1746 For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
17 Jun 1831 B 1 William George Hay,18th Earl of Erroll 21 Feb 1801 19 Apr 1846 65
Created Baron Kilmarnock 17 Jun 1831
19 Apr 1846 2 William Harry Hay,19th Earl of Erroll 3 May 1823 3 Dec 1891 68
3 Dec 1891 3 Charles Gore Hay,20th Earl of Erroll 7 Feb 1852 8 Jul 1927 75
8 Jul 1927 4 Victor Alexander Sereld Hay,21st Earl of Erroll 17 Oct 1876 20 Feb 1928 51
20 Feb 1928 5 Josslyn Victor Hay,22nd Earl of Erroll 11 May 1901 24 Jan 1941 39
24 Jan 1941 6 Gilbert Allan Rowland Boyd 15 Jan 1903 15 May 1975 72
15 May 1975 7 Alastair Ivor Gilbert Boyd 11 May 1927 19 Mar 2009 81
19 Mar 2009 8 Robin Jordan Boyd 6 Jun 1941
Joseph Kagan, Baron Kagan
Kagan was born in Lithuania and was later sent by his father to Leeds University, where he took
a degree in commerce. When he was visiting Lithuania, World War II broke out and he was
interned for the duration. After the war had ended, he was able to return to England. He took
a job as a salesman at Elland in Yorkshire, to where his father had transferred part of his 
Kagan made his fortune with a cloth called Gannex, in which air was sealed between nylon and
wool linings to create a lightweight fabric that was also warm and waterproof. Prime Minister
Harold Wilson wore a Gannex raincoat on a visit to Russia in 1966, with the result that Gannex
received wide publicity.  In the same year, Kagan was able to persuade the Duke of Edinburgh's
valet to order a Gannex coat from Harrods, which immediately placed a large order.
To capitalise on Wilson's patronage, Kagan became a major contributor to the Labour Party. He
was rewarded by being created, firstly, a knight in 1970 and subsequently a life peer in Wilson's 
resignation honours list of 1976 - the infamous "Lavender List".
In early 1980, Kagan, along with other members of his family, was charged with conspiracy to
defraud the Inland Revenue between June 1974 and December 1978. He was further charged 
with the theft of 239 drums of indigo dye powder and falsification of documents. Kagan fled the 
country, initially seeking asylum in Israel, claiming he had been the victim of British anti-
semitism. Israel turned him away, so he next tried Spain, which, at that time, had no 
extradition treaty with the UK. On 8 April 1980, he was arrested while on a trip to Paris, having 
apparently been informed upon by a disaffected mistress. 
He was extradited to the UK on 31 July 1980. He pleaded guilty to the theft and falsification of
documents charges and, on 12 December 1980 was sentenced to 10 months in prison. His 
company was left to find £1.1 million in fines, tax liabilities and costs.
In April 1981, he was stripped of the knighthood granted to him in 1970, but kept the life 
peerage, since to remove it would have required an Act of Parliament. In June 1981, Kagan was 
released, describing his imprisonment as "a fascinating experience which I am glad not to have
missed." He immediately returned to the House of Lords, declaring that "I do not feel disgraced 
in any way."
According to Rubinstein's "Biographical Dictionary of Life Peers", Kagan's father died in 1988 at
the age of 109, the second oldest man in England at the time of his death.
The special remainder to the Barony of Keith created in 1797
From the "London Gazette" of 28 March 1797 (issue 13997, page 299):-
"Letters Patent have been passed under the Great Seal of this Kingdom, containing a Grant of
the Dignity of a Baron of His Majesty's Kingdom of Ireland unto Sir George Keith Elphinstone,
Knight of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, and Vice-Admiral of the Blue Squadron of His
Majesty's Fleet, and to the Heirs Male of his Body, by the Name, Style and Title of Baron Keith,
of Stonehaven Marrischal, with Remainder (in Default of lssue Male) to Margaret Mercer 
Elphinstone, only Daughter of the said Sir George Keith Elphinstone, and to the Heirs Male of her
The special remainder to the Barony of Keith created in 1803
From the "London Gazette" of 6 September 1803 (issue 15618, page 1179):-
"The King has been pleased to grant the Dignity of a Baron of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland to the Right Honorable George Keith, Baron Keith of Stonehaven Marischal, in
the County of Kincardine, Knight of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, and Admiral of the
Blue Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet, and to the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten, by the
Name, Style, and Title of Baron Keith, of Banlieath, in the County of Dumbarton; and in Default
of such Issue, the Dignity of a Baroness to Margaret Mercer Elphinstone, only Daughter of the
said Baron Keith, and the Dignity of a Baron to the Heirs Male of her Body lawfully begotten."
Francis Archibald Douglas, Baron Kelhead
Francis Douglas was the eldest son of the 9th Marquess of Queensberry. Until 1893, Douglas 
was known by the courtesy title of Viscount Drumlanrig. As a young man, he was a lieutenant in 
the Coldstream Guards.
In 1892, William Gladstone became Prime Minister for the fourth and last time. The Foreign 
Secretary in his administration was Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery. Rumours abound as 
to Rosebery's sexuality; although married with four children, it was often rumoured that he was 
bisexual. Whatever the truth of these rumours, there is no doubt that he made Francis Douglas
his protégé. He was introduced to Rosebery around 1892 and, in spite of any obvious 
qualifications, Rosebery appointed him to be his private secretary. Seeking to advance his young 
friend, Rosebery obtained for him the position of a Lord-in-Waiting to Queen Victoria. To qualify
for this role, Francis needed to be a peer in his own right and he was accordingly created Baron
Kelhead in June 1893.
Francis' father, the hot-headed Marquess of Queensberry and later bane of Oscar Wilde, was
furious when his son was given entry into the House of Lords. Because Queensberry held no
English titles, he had to rely upon being elected as a representative peer of Scotland in order
to sit in the Lords. Although he had been a representative peer between 1872 and 1880, his
fellow peers declined to re-elect him in 1880, due to his publicly professed atheism. Between
1880 and 1893, Queensberry found himself embroiled in a number of scandals, further details
of which can be found at the foot of the page containing details of his peerage. When he
heard of Rosebery's plan to elevate his son to the House of Lords, his reaction was typically
violent. He wrote angry letters to Gladstone and Rosebery. He even wrote to the Queen,
complaining of Rosebery's 'bad influence' on his son, which was probably an oblique accusation
of homosexuality.
Soon after Francis' promotion, the Marquess pursued Rosebery to Bad Homburg in Germany
where Rosebery was holidaying with the Prince of Wales. Queensberry, armed with a dog
whip, was found lurking near Rosebery's hotel and the next day the local police chief was able
to report to Rosebery that Queensberry had 'found it advisable to depart this morning with 
the 7 o'clock train for Paris.' However, news of the attempted assault started tongues wagging
about the nature of the relationship between Rosebery and Lord Kelhead. 
During the summer of 1894, Francis became engaged to a young woman named Alix Ellis. In
October of that year, he accepted an invitation for a weekend's shooting at Quantock Lodge,
near Bridgwater, the home of Alix's uncle, Edward Stanley (MP for Somerset West 1882-1885
and Bridgwater 1885-1906). On 19 October, while out with his fellow shooters, he went into
the next field. After a few minutes, his companions heard a shot and, hurrying into the field,
found Francis dead from a gunshot wound. At the subsequent inquest, the coroner recorded
a verdict of accidental death, although public opinion was widely in favour of suicide.
Having lost one son in circumstances surrounded by rumours of homosexuality, it is possible
that Queensberry was determined not to lose another, which may explain his implacable
persecution of Oscar Wilde six months later.
Anne, wife of Thomas Erskine, 9th Earl of Kellie, and Joanna, wife of Methven 
Erskine, 10th Earl of Kellie
The following romantic histories of two of the Countesses of Kellie are taken from, firstly,
"Chapters from Family Chests" by Edward Walford [2 vols, Hurst and Blackett, London 1886]:-
'It is not often that a coronet passes over sixteen or seventeen intervening heads to light upon
that of a person eighteenth in remainder. Yet such an event happened in the middle of last
century in the noble Scottish house of Erskine, which enjoys, among other honours, the earldom
of Kellie. If anybody will be at pains of turning to the pages of Sharpe's Peerage, he will see 
that, while Mr. Methven Erskine was married to Joanna, daughter of Gordon of Ardoch, in Ross-
shire, his brother Thomas was also married to that lady's sister Anne. He will also see that both 
of these gentlemen outlived their seniors, and became Earls of Kellie, and that their respective
ladies also lived to become countesses. 'Marriage,' they say, 'are made in heaven,' but, as these 
two unions came about through a shipwreck, the truth of the statement may be doubted.
'The Castle of Ardoch stands perched on a rock high above the waves of the German Ocean 
[i.e. the North Sea], on a headland somewhere between Turbat and Fortrose. The owner of this
domain (Mr. Adam Gordon) in one of the last years of the reign of George II, or soon after the
accession of George III, was walking late one evening in his grounds, when he heard a gun fired
as a signal of distress by a vessel in the offing. It was a very stormy night, and he knew that
there was little chance for a good ship which got near the rocks of that headland when a strong
east wind was blowing. He called his servants and tenants, however, and hastened down a cleft
in the rocks to the beach, but no traces of the ill-fated vessel were to be found, except a few
broken spars and some small fragments of timber floating hither and thither upon the waves. 
These they tried to collect as they came to the shore, and among other wreckage was a sort 
of tiny crib of wicker-work, inside of which was a female infant, alive, in spite of the cold and
wet to which she had been exposed. It was the work of a few moments to rescue the little
stranger, thrown, like a second Undine, upon a strange shore. [Undine is a figure from German
mythology, a water nymph who has been often used as a motif in art, music and literature,
notably by Debussy, Hoffman and Tchaikovsky]
'From the clothes wrapped round its tiny body it was clear to Mr. Gordon that she was a child
of parents of no low condition; but there was in her clothing no clue as to who or what her 
parents might be, nor was there anything to show the name of the vessel thus lost and
swallowed up by the waves.
'It was a matter of course to a hospitable Scottish heart like that of Mr. Gordon to take the
little foundling home and have her wants attended to by his wife and daughters. He doubtless
supposed, and at first probably hoped, that ere long the little waif of the sea foam would be
claimed; and in the meantime the latter was reared with his own children, who were young
and who came soon to regard her as a sister.
'Years passed by, and the little foundling was growing up to womanhood, and was endearing
herself more and more to all the members of the Ardoch family, when one wintry and stormy
evening another alarm gun was fired by a vessel in distress off the same cliffs. 'History,' they
say, 'repeats itself,' and it would seem occasionally in trifling as well as in important matters.
Mr. Gordon hastened down to the beach, as he had done some sixteen years before, just in
time to witness another shipwreck. The vessel went to pieces on the rocks but some, at all 
events, of the crew and a single passenger were saved. These were invited to rest and dry 
themselves at the 'great house,' where every hospitality and refreshment was offered them.
The passenger was evidently a gentleman, and the next morning at breakfast he took particular
notice of the daughters of his host, and of the other young lady whom I have already 
introduced to my readers. The stranger was evidently much struck with her appearance, and,
finding that she was not like the other girls, he made some inquiries about her, when he heard
the story of her coming to Ardoch as a 'foundling,' and having been saved from the jaws of the
ocean as by a miracle. The stranger listened with great interest and emotion and said that at
the date corresponding with her infancy his own sister, with a little infant, was lost in a vessel
off the eastern coast of Scotland, which foundered in a storm.
'As is often the case, the unexpected not only is probable, but often does happen in reality. 
And so it was here. The cot or cradle in which the foundling came ashore, on being shown to 
the new-comer, was pronounced to be singularly like that which his sister had made for her 
before she left India. The features of the young lady, too, corresponded with those of his own 
relatives. Further inquiries brought out other points of similarity, and a mark on the little lady's 
coverlet bore the initial letter of her father's and mother's name. The foundling orphan, there 
could be little doubt, was his own sister's child.
'The gentleman was a merchant, and the shipwreck which he had suffered hat not ruined him. 
He had a home at Gothenberg, in Sweden. It was open for the reception of his niece, and there 
was a little fortune ready for the young lady there in case she should ever be found. Twenty 
years, however, had endeared her to her sisters, as she called the Misses Gordon, and she was 
unwilling to go to Sweden with her newly-discovered uncle, unless one of the Misses Gordon 
would accompany her, and the other promised to come and stay with her upon her sister's 
return to Scotland.
'Accordingly, Miss Anne Gordon sailed with her adopted sister from the port of Leith for Sweden,
where, in 1771, only a few weeks after landing at Gothenberg, she became the wife of Mr.
Thomas Erskine, a younger brother of Sir William Erskine, of Cambo, in Fifeshire, who had been
long settled there [Gothenberg] as a merchant, and was a man of wealth……… Some nine or 
ten years later, Miss Joanna Gordon was married to Mr. Methven Erskine, the younger brother
of her sister's husband. Deaths followed in rapid succession in the family of Lord Kellie, and in
1797 the earldom devolved on Charles Erskine. He lived, however, to enjoy the title little more
than two years, for in 1799 he followed his ancestors to the grave, and the earldom of Kellie
passed to his uncle and heir, Thomas Erskine, who had been for some time a consul in Sweden.
And so it came to pass that the incident of a shipwreck twenty or thirty years before resulted
in bestowing the coronet of a countess first on one [Anne, wife of the 9th Earl] and then on
the other [Joanna, wife of the 10th Earl] of the two Misses Gordon of Ardoch.'
Secondly, from "Romances of the Peerage" by Thornton Hall [Holden & Hardingham,
London 1914]:-
'The Earls of Mar and Kellie have many treasured heirlooms at Alloa House and Kellie Castle, but
of which they are prouder than the wicker cradle and bundle of baby's clothes which recall a 
story as romantic as any to be found in the annals of the Peerage.
'One winter evening in the year 1763, when the third of our Georges was comparatively new to
his crown, Mr. Adam Gordon was sitting with his wife before a roaring fire in the hall of Castle
Ardoch. It was a night of storm and deluge; the rain was lashing the window-panes, the wind
was howling among the turrets and shrieking down the chimneys, the castle walls were 
trembling under the fury of the gale. 
" What a terrible night ! " said Adam Gordon to his wife, as he drew his chair nearer to the
blazing logs. " There will be many a life lost to-night at sea, unless I am mistaken. It's the
wildest storm I have known in my time." Scarcely had the words left his lips when through the
pandemonium of the gale there came the low, faint boom of a cannon. "There!" he exclaimed,
as the sound, so full of portent, died away. "Did you hear that? I knew it. There's a vessel on
the rocks. God help those who are in her, for there is no hope for them!"
'To summon his men-servants and, armed with lanterns, to sally out into the dark night on the
errand of mercy was the work of a few moments. In the teeth of the gale, drenched and 
buffeted, the handful of men fought their way to the beach, a few hundred yards distant, and
with straining eyes looked out over the wild riot of waters. Yes; there, but a stone's throw
away was the doomed ship, beating her life out on the cruel fangs of the rocks which guard the
coast of Ross and Cromarty from the fury of the North Sea.
'That glance was sufficient; the vessel was indeed doomed. No boat could live for a moment in
such a sea. All they could do was to wait and watch if by good chance any of the crew were
washed ashore. Through the long dark hours of the night the patient vigil was kept; the 
watchers saw the vessel break up, just as the first faint streaks of dawn stole over the sky.
A few moments later a shout drew the scattered men to a distant part of the beach where one
of their number was stooping over the strangest piece of flotsam that was ever flung ashore by
an angry sea.
'It was a wicker cradle, of curious foreign-looking make; and in it was lying a baby, with blue, 
open eyes of wonder, smiling up at the wild group of heads bent over it. The cradled infant
thus miraculously flung ashore was all that the sea gave up from the ill-fated ship, save a few
fragments of wreckage, none of which gave any clue to the identity of the vessel.
'It was a strange but happy procession that made its way back in the early morning to the
hospitable shelter of Castle Ardoch, preceded by Adam Gordon with the sea-baby warmly 
tucked inside his overcoat, and followed by John Anderson, cradle in hand; and it was a warm 
welcome that the infant received from the motherly arms of Dame Gordon, who little dreamt as 
later she tucked it in the warm bed between her two little daughters that the waif of the sea 
was bringing to her house a coronet in each of her baby hands. She was destined, as this story 
will prove, to make a Countess of each of her child-bedfellows in the years to come.
'Who was this child of the sea and the storm who had come thus dramatically into the hospitable
home of the Gordons ? In vain did Adam and his lady try to solve the mystery. There was no 
clue or at least no clue that was of any use to the problem. That the wicker cradle, the frail 
bark which had brought the babe so miraculously over the raging waters, was from a foreign 
land there could be doubt. But where was that land?
'The child's clothing was beautiful in quality and texture; she was evidently the daughter of well-
to-do parents; but it, too, furnished no clue beyond two embroidered and interwoven initials 
which conveyed no information as to identity. The wreck-baby was a complete mystery, as
strange as the wonder of her advent; but she was none the less a welcome guest, who should 
be as carefully and lovingly tended as their own little girls.
'Thus the " Princess," as Adam Gordon used to call his sea-baby, found new parents in Adam and
his good wife; and never for one moment did they regret that black night of storm that had 
given her to them. Every year she grew in strength and beauty and winsomeness. She was a 
little fairy who won all hearts, from those of her playmates and foster-sisters to the grim-
visaged men-servants who to a man were the slaves of the little "Missie" they had saved from
the sea. 
'Thus happily the years passed. The " Princess " had blossomed into a lovely girl of sixteen; her
sisters, equally fair, were a few years older, when the curtain was raised on the second scene
of this strange drama. Again it was a night of wild storm and disaster; and again, through the 
thunders of wind and sea was heard the boom of the distress-gun; and once more, as sixteen
years earlier, Adam Gordon and his men fared forth in the dark night on rescue bent.
'This time, as before, the vessel was ground to pieces on the deadly rocks; and of all on board
only one was yielded to the shore and to life by the greedy sea. It was a man, battered, 
bruised, and unconscious, lashed to a piece of wreckage. Happily, life still lingered, and the
senseless man was borne swiftly to Castle Ardoch, restoratives were administered, and when
consciousness returned he was put to bed. 
'The following morning the second sole survivor of a wreck was able to thank the Good 
Samaritans, his rescuers, and to explain who he was and how he came to be their guest. He
was, he said, a Swedish merchant hailing from Gothenburg, and had been voyaging to Scotland
when the storm flung his ship on the rocky coast of Ross and Cromarty. A few days later he
was sufficiently recovered to join his host at the family meals, and thus to make the 
acquaintance of his daughters, and of their sister, the pretty sixteen-year-old "Princess."
'Then it was that Adam Gordon told him the story of that other night, many years earlier, which
had brought such a welcome guest into his home, a story to which the stranger listened with
growing interest and excitement. " That is indeed remarkable," said the stranger on its 
conclusion; " and to me of peculiar interest. I will tell you why. It is sixteen years since my
sister left India in a vessel of which nothing more was ever heard with certainty. It was 
rumoured however, that she had been wrecked on the Scottish coast. And what is more 
singular, my sister had with her a baby girl, an infant only a few months old. How strange it
would be if this young lady," pointing to the "Princess," "should prove to be my lost sister's
child, and thus my niece. May I see the cradle in which the child was flung ashore?"
'The wicker cradle, which had been carefully preserved, was brought foe inspection; and as the
merchant examined it his excitement increased. It was undoubtedly of foreign make, and might
well have been Indian. " Have you any other clue?" he asked. The baby-clothes were now
produced, and at sight of the embroidered initials the stranger exclaimed, "Yes, it must be so.
Those are the initials of my sister and her husband. This young lady, whom, like myself, the sea
has brought to your home is surely my niece, my dear sister's daughter!"
'Such was the dramatic scene of which Castle Ardoch was the setting one winter day in the
year 1779. The discovery, however welcome to the Swedish merchant, was by no means
equally welcome to Adam Gordon and his family, who feared that now they would lose the
girl whom they had learned to love so well. 
'Nor were their fears misplaced, for the merchant proceeded to assert his claim to his niece. "It
is," he said, " a poor return for your great kindness to try to rob you of one of your daughters. 
But I am comparatively a rich man, with no child of my own; and I owe it to my dear sister to
take her place as the natural guardian of her daughter. Will you at least allow her to come to 
me for a year? If, at the end of the year, she wishes to return to you, I will put no obstacle in 
her way." 
"Oh, I am so happy here!" pleaded the "Princess." "Don't take me away!" In vain did Mr. and Mrs.
Gordon, who, whatever the cost to themselves, felt that she should not refuse such a tempting
offer, add their persuasions to those of her uncle. And it was only on condition that one of her
"sisters" should accompany her that she at last tearfully consented to leave for a time the home
she loved. 
'Thus it was that, when the merchant left Castle Ardoch, he took with him to Sweden, not only
his niece, but one of his host's daughters, who thus found themselves translated to a new 
world of gaiety, far removed from the peaceful humdrum days of their Scottish home. At
At Gothenburg their life was a constant round of pleasure; and it was not long before the two
beautiful girls had lovers at their feet. 
'Among Miss Anne Gordon's wooers was Thomas Erskine, a wealthy merchant of Gothenburg, and
a scion of an old Scottish house, who made a speedy conquest of Adam Gordon's daughter. It
was not only a desirable match in all ways, but it was a true union of hearts; and when the
wooer wrote to Scotland for permission to make Anne his wife, a favourable answer was not 
long in coming. 
'But excellent as the match was, we may be sure that Anne Gordon, as she stood at the
Gothenburg altar with her husband, little dreamt that she was one day to wear a Countess's
coronet. She knew that Thomas Erskine was of noble birth. He could look back, on his family-
tree, to a long line of distinguished ancestors, headed by one Sir Robert, who was Scotland's
Great Chamberlain when the second Alexander was king in the fourteenth century; and among
those ancestors was a long list of Earls of Kellie. But between him and the Kellie coronet at that
time were more than a dozen good lives, and if anyone had told him on his wedding-day that he 
would live to bear the title he would have laughed aloud.
'The coronet, however, came to Thomas Erskine when his wife had worn her wedding-ring a 
score of years; and Adam Gordon's daughter Anne lived to be a Countess, thanks to the little
sea-waif who had, by such strange ways, led her to her husband. Nor was this the extent of
the good fortune which the " Princess" brought to the family of Castle Ardoch.
'Before Anne Gordon had been a wife a year her sister Johanna arrived in Gothenburg to spend
a few months as her guest ; and there she met and learnt to love Methven Erskine, the 
handsome young brother of her sister's husband; and for the second time the wedding-bells
were set a-ringing. 
'Methven Erskine was also a substantial citizen of the Swedish town; and when, in process of
time, Thomas, ninth Earl of Kellie and eighth Baronet, was laid in the family vault, Methven
succeeded him in his titles and dignities, and made a Countess of Adam Gordon's second
daughter. And thus it was that the sea-child brought two coronets with her in her wicker
cradle when she was washed ashore that stormy night in the year 1763.
'As for the " Princess " herself, she could give coronets to others, but none came to her. Nor
did she wish for one; for she found all the happiness she desired in the plain untitled husband
who won her heart. He was the richest of all Gothenburg's merchants; and when to his money-
bags was added the fortune that fell to his wife on her uncle's death, the "Princess" more than
justified Adam Gordon's pet name by a hospitality and, above all, a charity which made her at
once the most splendid and beloved woman in Gothenburg.'
Ermengarde Melusina Schulenberg, Duchess of Kendal
The Duchess of Kendal was the long-standing mistress of King George I of England. The 
following biography is taken from the February 1962 issue of the Australian monthly magazine
'When simple-minded little George Louis, Elector of Hanover, arrived in London in 1714 to 
become King George I of England, he brought with him (said a British annalist) "a flight of
hungry Germans like so many famished vultures to fall on the fruitful soil of Britain." Among the
"vultures" were George's two mistresses. One, the Baroness von Kilmansegge, was short and
fat. The other, the Countess von Schulenberg, was so tall and lean that the London mob
nicknamed her the "Maypole." Britain's contempt, however, soon turned to hearty detestation,
for the angular countess - graced with the title of Duchess of Kendal - proved the most corrupt
and rapacious of all the mistresses who ever enjoyed the favour of an English king.
'The greedy Melusina von Schulenberg had already been George's lover for 20 years before he
succeeded Queen Anne to be the first Hanoverian monarch of England. Even the cynical 
politicians of early 18th century Britain were staggered at the blatant corruption with which she
set out to amass a fortune. As Duchess of Kendal, she sold titles and offices, bartered her
influence over King George for enormous bribes and forced the greatest statesmen to court her
like a queen. She raked in pensions from ruined and starving Ireland. Her enemies called her "an
ugly trull" and "the German witch." She was stoned and abused but her power over the dull-
witted king lasted to the day of his death.
'Melusina von Schulenberg was born on Christmas Day, 1667, in Emden, the capital of a
bankrupt little German province ruled by her father, Count Gustavus. The Schulenbergs were
proud but poor. The girl grew up in an atmosphere of penny-pinching that left her with an 
insatiable hunger for money and security at any cost. At 25, Melusina was maid-of-honour to
the raddled old Electress Sophia of Hanover, grand-daughter of James I of England and soon
to become heiress to Britain's crown on the death of Queen Anne's children.
'In the electoral court, amid the fountains and lime avenues of Herrenhausen, Melusina first
met and conquered the heart of Sophia's son, Prince George, the future King George I. George
was already married to Sophie Dorothea of Celle, but in 1694 the match ended in a fearful 
explosion of tragedy and scandal that rocked the courts of Europe. Sophie's lover, the 
handsome and reckless Count von Koenigsmarck, was murdered mysteriously. George divorced
his wayward bride and for 32 years till her death Sophie was a virtual prisoner in the gloomy
castle of Ahlden.
'By about 1700, Melusina was Prince George's acknowledged mistress, sharing his favours with
the chubby and good-natured Baroness von Kilmansegge. Neither had much to recommend them
in looks. "Imagine those mawkins as my son's mistresses!" the old electress sneered. But she 
greatly under-estimated Melusina's influence and ambition. George was a coarse-grained man
of homely tastes. He liked filling himself with oysters, sausages and Rhenish wine, and his 
favourite intellectual occupation was cutting painted figures out of cardboard. He was not much
concerned with beauty, as long as his women were very fat and very willing - though Melusina
was an exception to his weakness for well-padded feminine figures.
'The placid life of Herrenhausen was disrupted in 1714 by the sudden deaths of both Queen
Anne and the Electress Sophia. In August, George was summoned to London to be crowned
George I of England. With him went a troop of 100 Hanoverian courtiers, servants, pastry cooks,
trumpeters, negro pages, and even the electoral washerwoman with five barrels of starch. Also
in the retinue was the Baroness von Kilmansegge. Melusina, loaded with debts, watched her rival
depart with dismay but was determined to follow her master to the rich plunder of Britain. Bilking
her creditors, she slipped out of Hanover, joined the royal party at The Hague, and was in 
George's coach as it rolled, amid loyal acclamation, into the streets of London.
'Anne's death had plunged England into a fever of alarm. Rumours of a Jacobite invasion swept
the land, as Anne's chief minister, Lord Bolingbroke, fled to the exiled Stuart court in Paris. The
Whig potentates rallied to George's side. He might be a foreigner, a dull German who could not
speak a word of English, but he represented the Protestant succession. The Old Pretender's 
invasion of Scotland a year later cemented popular support for King George. Soon, however, the
Whig leaders found they also had to deal with a greedy and formidable mistress.
'In 1716 Melusina was created Duchess of Munster in the Irish peerage, with a pension of 
£7000 from the revenues of Ireland. This was small pickings to what soon followed. She was 
appointed Master of the Horse, an office worth £4000 a year and usually bestowed on a peer.
Two customs house sinecures added another £4000. The new duchess also drove a lucrative
trade in selling peerages. The banker, Sir Robert Child, paid her £10,000 for a title. A viscountcy
bestowed on a Cornish squire brought her £11,000. The most blatant scandal followed the 
Treaty of Utrecht between England and France. Among the French possessions then acquired
by Britain was the rich sugar island of St. Kitt's in the West Indies. Sales of the land to British
planters realised £70,000, all of which was lavished by George on his mistresses despite the 
bitter protest of Charles Townshend and the other Whig chiefs. Infuriated by Townshend's
opposition and his refusal to agree to her receiving an English title, Melusina forced the king to
sack his ministers and bring the Tory Lord Sunderland to power.
'In 1719 she had her reward. She was created Duchess of Kendal, while her rival, Baroness von
Kilmansegge, was fobbed off with the inferior title of Countess of Darlington. The countess was
then grotesquely fat, with "two acres of cheeks spread with crimson, an ocean of neck and an
overflowing body of which no part was restrained by stays."
'By now both the king's mistresses were the objects of ferocious contempt from the London
mob. Hooting, filth-slinging crowds followed the Duchess of Kendal's coach and bawled ribald
songs in her ear. Once she stuck her powdered head out of the coach window and demanded:
"Vy do you abuse me, ven I am here only for your goots?" A stentorian voice answered: "Aye,
damn ye, and for our chattels too!" Obscene lampoons were scrawled on the walls of St. James
Palace, where statesmen and courtiers crowded the duchess' apartments to beg or bribe for her
influence on the King. Military appointments, posts at court, peerages and pensions all went
through her rapacious hands - while King George drowsed over his wine or played cards with his
German favourites. 
'In 1720, the sensational collapse of the South Sea Bubble brought Walpole back to power, 
beginning a Whig dictatorship in English politics that lasted for 40 years. The Norfolk squire 
Robert Walpole was robust, corrupt and ruthless, but even he had to ensure his power at first 
by cultivating the insatiable Duchess of Kendal. "I do everything through that woman," Walpole
admitted privately. "She is the real Queen of England and she has got her skinny German fingers
into a noble fortune." 
'Another stream of wealth poured in to the duchess in 1722, when the British Government
agreed to issue a new copper coinage for Ireland. The duchess obtained the patent for 
supplying the coins and promptly sold it to iron merchant William Wood [1671-1730] for £10,000.
To recoup the cost, Wood debased the metal in the coins. Impoverished Ireland rose in furious
outcry against Wood's Half-pence, lashed by the acid-tipped pen of Dean Swift. The scandal
brought a fresh load of hatred on the Duchess of Kendal's head. Even the Crown Jewels of
England's queens were not safe from the Duchess of Kendal's greed for gold. When George II
succeeded in 1727, his queen, Caroline, had to borrow pearls from courtier's wives and diamonds
from Jewish money-lenders for her coronation robes.
'George had other mistresses, notably the lively Duchess of Shrewsbury and young Anne Brett,
illegitimate daughter of the Countess of Macclesfield, but none rivalled the power of the 
domineering Duchess of Kendal. The elegant Lord Chesterfield might brand her "almost an idiot," 
but he was glad to marry Petronilla, the daughter of George and the Duchess, who was created 
[i.e. Countess of] Walsingham in 1722. Another daughter, Margaret, married the Count of
[Schaumburg-] Lippe, and both had handsome dowries.
'In 1727, George set off on his last visit to his beloved Hanover. On the way, racked by gout
from years of gross over-feeding and drinking he collapsed in his carriage and died. The Duchess,
who was following him, heard the news by courier as she crossed the Rhine. By the time she
returned to London, her world of influence and intrigue had fallen forever. Queen Caroline, wife 
of the new King George II, despised her. Walpole, safe in Caroline's favour and reputedly her 
lover, no longer needed the ageing and withered mistress of the dead monarch.
'The Duchess of Kendal retired to a villa at Isleworth on the Thames. She had a legacy of
£40,000 by the will of George I, and no one could guess what other riches she had amassed.
Till her death in May, 1743, she lived in retirement, eccentric and almost forgotten. Her most
cherished companion was a jet-black raven which one day flew through her parlour window
[Apparently she believed the raven to be the dead king returning to visit her].'
The Viscountcy of Kenmure
In an article on 7 September 1847, 'The Times' reported upon the death of Adam Gordon, 8th
Viscount Kenmure and Lord of Lochinvar. The article concludes with the statement that 
"whether the title, in consequence of the death of the late Viscount, becomes extinct or not
is, we believe, altogether undetermined."  Since that time, peerage books of reference have 
treated the peerage as being dormant, although there appears to have been a number of
lines of descent from the first Viscount.
The following interesting article appeared in the Hobart 'Mercury' of 6 January 1876:-
'There has just died, at his residence in Coatbridge, a well-known townsman, named James
Gordon. Generally believed, says the Glasgow Herald, to be descended from the stock of the
Gordons of Lochinvar or Kenmure, "Young Jamie," apparently inheriting the patriotic though,
perhaps, diminished military ardour of his forefathers, entered into foreign service at the early
age of 17. Although so very young, he was tall, muscular, and strongly built. He continued
abroad for several years, and was "under fire" in several of the sanguinary conflicts of the
Peninsula War - his first engagement, it is believed, being the final and successful investment
of Badajoz, which resulted in the taking of the city by storm, after a 20 days' siege, in which
our brave army suffered severely; but the garrison and their commander became prisoners of
war. Gordon also served in the Royal Sappers and Miners. He lost an eye by an accident in a
mining operation, and was discharged at Woolwich on the 30th of September, 1820, with a
pension of 9d. a day. 
'Throughout his whole service he was a zealous and exemplary soldier, and bore about him
the stamp and evidences if a loftier region than his humble station gave reason to expect. 
When Gordon returned to Scotland, he took service under several coal-masters, and was 
engaged at first principally in "shanking" operations. While in the employment of the Dundyvan
Company the excitement about the heirship to the estate of Kenmure and its belongings 
cropped up, and so general was the belief entertained that Gordon was the legitimate heir
that funds were quickly subscribed to carry the case into court. After a rather tedious litigation
he was successful, and thus "one of the most singular events in life occurred, which make
contrasts at times appear almost fabulous." "The soldier turned peer" had often been the
player's jest, but it now became a veritable reality when, in September, 1848 [sic for 1847],
this James Gordon, the private soldier, succeeded, as heir to his grandfather, to the titles of
Viscount Kenmure and Lord Lochinvar. When the exciting news reached Coatbridge, a great
demonstration of popular feeling was made. Bonfires were kindled in the principal thoroughfares
of the then small village, and a brilliant display of fireworks was made from the windows of
the Coatbridge inn.
'The lucky heir was meanwhile most hospitably entertained to supper, and the health of "Earl
[sic] Kenmure," "Viscount Gordon," "Lord Lochinvar," etc. - all titles pertaining to the successor
of the Gordon family - was most enthusiastically proposed, amidst the universal rejoicings of the
'But the party in possession kept good their seats, and "Poor Jamie," although served with the 
titles, never got possession of the estate. One friend after another who had helped him in his 
long litigious struggle "dropped off" when another case was threatened, and when the "supplies"
were no longer forthcoming, "Lord" Gordon  had again to settle down as a humble artisan in the
rich mineral fields surrounding the iron village of Coatbridge. Here he continued in his humble
occupation, serving for many years under Messrs. Neilson, of Summerlee, where latterly, after
old age began to creep upon him, he was granted a pension, although he had failed to obtain
what he termed his "rights" from the Crown. His naturally vigorous constitution kept firm to the
last, and the "Earl" [sic] could often be observed stalking along the main street, staff in hand, 
or enjoying a social glass. His wife died many years ago, and the only relative that is left is a
daughter. The remains of the unfortunate "Earl" have been interred in Mount Zion Churchyard,
the funeral procession being witnessed by a large crowd of sympathisers.'
Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Edward was the fourth son of King George III. He was educated in Europe by a tutor named
Baron Wangenheim, a petty-minded tyrant who allowed the young prince one guinea a week
pocket-money, censored his letters and kept him well away from feminine society. In January
1791, he returned to England, but because he had come home without his father's permission,
he was hustled into the Army and packed off to Gibraltar.
He was already a fussy martinet whose rabid insistence on the smallest details of parade
ground etiquette soon caused mutterings of discontent among the troops. Within a few months,
the Prince's regiment was seething with mutiny. To save face, in May 1791 he was shipped off
to join the army in Canada, but not before he had to sell his equipment to pay his debts.
He had barely set foot in Quebec when he met the woman who was to be his mistress for the
next 27 years. She was Alphonsine Therese Bernardine Julie de St. Laurent, daughter of a 
French family which had fled France following the Revolution. He soon installed her as his 
mistress in a simple log house near Halifax, Nova Scotia, where they were happy for seven 
years. In October 1798 his horse crashed through rotten timbers of a bridge on his estate, 
throwing him heavily and injuring his head. Doctors urged him to return to England for treatment.
On his return to London, Julie was installed in a discreet house in Knightsbridge, while Edward 
spent his time running up enormous debts. To escape his creditors, he returned to Canada, this
time as Commander in Chief. Once again, his savage ideas of military discipline caused him to be
hated. Hundreds of troops deserted and any deserter who was captured was punished with 
ruthless ferocity. One man was sentenced to 999 lashes, but died under the whip long before 
this count could be reached. A group of soldiers, maddened by his savagery, planned to mutiny,
kill the Duke and flee to the woods, but were betrayed, flogged unmercifully and sent back to 
England to rot in the prison hulks.
In October 1800 he was recalled to England, on the grounds of ill-health, but more probably 
because the authorities were concerned that his behaviour would drive the Canadians into 
rebellion. As a typical parting gesture, he sentenced 11 soldiers to death for breaches of 
discipline. Back in England, he begged his father to let him restore order in rebellious Ireland, but 
the King shrank from letting his son loose on his Irish subjects.
Early in 1802 he was offered the post of Governor of Gibraltar. The garrison at the Rock was
demoralised by drink and debauchery, discipline had almost vanished and there was a constant 
threat of invasion by Napoleon's Mediterranean fleet. The Duke's task was to return the garrison 
to a warlike state - a job after his own heart. When he arrived in May 1802, he was appalled by 
the conditions he found, which gave him ample excuse for his usual harshness. Within a week he 
had closed most of the wine shops, flogged a large number of drunken soldiers and enforced 
every detail of parade ground drill with pedantic efficiency.
On Christmas Eve of 1802, the smouldering mutiny burst into flames. Two regiments broke out 
of their quarters and called on their comrades to join them. Three of the ringleaders were 
hanged, but reports reaching London caused a storm and the Duke was recalled, his military 
career over (although he remained Governor of Gibraltar until his death).
For the next 15 years he lived in seclusion with Julie St. Laurent. In November 1817, there 
occurred the death of George III's only legitimate grandchild, the Princess Charlotte Augusta of
Wales. This caused a sudden flurry of belated ventures into matrimony by George's sons, 
including the Duke of Kent. In 1818, Julie de St. Laurent, his faithful mistress of 27 years, retired 
into a Belgian convent. On 29 May 1818, the Duke married Princess Mary Louise Victoria, widow 
of the Prince of Leiningen. Too poor to return to England, the couple lived in Leiningin until early 
in 1819, when it became apparent that the Duchess would soon produce the long-awaited royal 
heir. They dashed home and, on 24 May 1819, a girl was born who would later become Queen
The Duke had done his duty, but Parliament refused to pay his massive debts. At the end of 
1819, he and his Duchess retired to live simply at the coastal town of Sidmouth in Devon. Here, 
on a freezing winter's day, the Duke went for a walk, was soaked to the skin and died three 
days later, just six days before his father.
The Duchess lived on until 1861, surrounded by feuds with her daughter and rumours that the
Duke was not the father of Victoria. For further details of the feuding, see the note at the foot 
of the page contained details of Sir John Conroy, baronet. After the birth of Queen Victoria's
first child, mother and daughter were reconciled and she remained close to her daughter until 
her death.
As for the rumours of the Duke not being Victoria's father, it has been pointed out that none of
Victoria's descendants suffered from porphyria which ran in the Duke's family. Equally, before the
birth of any of Victoria's children, haemophilia was unknown in any of the families of the Duke, 
his Duchess or Prince Albert, although the disease can arise spontaneously. Believers of this 
theory also point out that, during the 27 years living with Julie St. Laurent, no children were 
born, possibly because the Duke was infertile. Against this theory is the low likelihood of the 
Duchess having an affair so soon after her marriage, together with Victoria's strong resemblance 
to her Hanoverian relatives. For further reading, see 'Queen Victoria's Gene: Haemophilia and the 
Royal Family' by D M Potts and W T W Potts, Sutton Publishing 1995.
Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes (18 May 1917-18 Nov 1941), son of the 1st Baron Keyes
Keyes was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross after he was killed leading an attack 
against Rommel's headquarters in North Africa in November 1941. The citation reads:-
'War Office, 19th June, 1942.
The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the posthumous award of the VICTORIA 
CROSS to the undermentioned officer: -
Major (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes, M.C. (71081), The Royal  
Scots Greys (2nd Dragoons), Royal Armoured Corps (Buckingham).
Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes commanded a detachment of a force which landed some 250 miles 
behind the enemy lines to attack Headquarters, Base Installations and Communications.
From the outset Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes deliberately selected for himself the command of the
detachment detailed to attack what was undoubtedly the most hazardous of these objectives -
the residence and Headquarters of the General Officer Commanding the German forces in North
Africa. This attack, even if initially successful, meant almost certain death for those who took
part in it.
He led his detachment without guides, in dangerous and precipitous country and in pitch  
darkness, and maintained by his stolid determination and powers of leadership the morale of the
detachment. He then found himself forced to modify his original plans in the light of fresh inform-
ation elicited from neighbouring Arabs, and was left only with one officer and an N.C.O. with 
whom to break into General Rommel's residence and deal with the guards and Headquarters 
At zero hour on the night of 17th-18th November, 1941, having despatched the covering party  
to block the approaches to the house, he himself with the two others crawled forward past the
guards, through the surrounding fence and so up to the house itself. Without hesitation, he
boldly led his party up to the front door, beat on the door and demanded entrance.
Unfortunately, when the door was opened, it was found impossible to overcome the sentry 
silently, and it was necessary to shoot him. The noise of the shot naturally aroused the inmates
of the house and Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes, appreciating that speed was now of the utmost 
importance, posted the N.C.O. at the foot of the stairs to prevent interference from the floor
Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes, who instinctively took the lead, emptied his revolver with great 
success into the first room and was followed by the other officer who threw a grenade.
Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes with great daring then entered the second room on the ground floor 
but was shot almost immediately on flinging open the door and fell back into the passage
mortally wounded. On being carried outside by his companions he died within a few minutes.
By his fearless disregard of the great dangers which he ran and of which he was fully aware, 
and by his magnificent leadership and outstanding gallantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Keyes set an
example of supreme self sacrifice and devotion to duty.'
For a more complete narrative of this attack, see "Victoria Cross Heroes" by Michael [Baron]
Ashcroft (London 2006).
Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare
The following biography of the 10th Earl of Kildare appeared in the April 1969 issue of the
Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
'His enemies contemptuously called him "Silken Thomas," but beneath all his swagger and 
dandified exterior, Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, was one of the most extraordinary
figures in Ireland's stormy history. He was little more than a boy, not yet 21, when he launched
the rebellion that in a few bloody months rocked the authority of Henry VIII of England to its
foundations. He dreamt briefly of reviving his country's ancient glory by crowning himself
monarch of Ireland, as a vassal of England's mortal foe, the King of England's mortal foe, the 
King of Spain. Then, within a year, the glittering vision of Silken Thomas had collapsed in a
welter of massacre, treachery and civil war. Abandoned by his fellow countrymen, hunted like
an animal by English armies, and finally lured into surrender by false promises, FitzGerald tasted
the atrocious fate reserved for unsuccessful rebels. One winter's day in 1537 he was dragged
on a hurdle to London's Tyburn scaffold. With him were five of his uncles, members of what had
been the proudest and most powerful family in Ireland. And there Silken Thomas, the man who
had hoped to be a king, was hanged, disembowelled and quartered before the eyes of the
howling rabble. 
'Since the days of the English conquest in the 12th century no baronial family had played a 
more impressive role in Irish history than the mighty clan of FitzGerald. In Kildare and large 
areas of central Ireland they ruled like independent princes. They owned a dozen great castles
and could raise an army of 10,000 from their own vassals and allied Irish chieftains. Silken 
Thomas's father, the 9th Earl of Kildare, had a full share of the pride and fiery temper that had
typified the FitzGeralds for generations. As Henry VIII's Viceroy and Governor of Ireland, he was
constantly in trouble, both with the turbulent Irish baronage and the English monarch who
suspected his boundless ambitions. 
'Early in 1534 Kildare's enemies, especially the Butler family and Archbishop [John] Allen of
of Dublin [1476-1534], succeeded in having the viceroy summoned to England for questioning.
Before he left in February, the Earl called a meeting of his council at Drogheda and announced
that his 20-year-old son, Thomas, would act as deputy during his absence. To the Irish nobility
this was simply another example of FitzGerald arrogance. Thomas was a beardless boy, a 
a handsome, pleasure-loving youth, without the slightest experience in the tasks of government.
He was a swaggerer and dandy, whose luxurious clothes and daintily clad cavalcade of squires
had already earned him the scornful nickname of Silken Thomas. Yet, within a few months of
receiving the symbolic sword of state from his father at Drogheda, Thomas FitzGerald was to
show a very different side of his character.
'In May 1534 he was hunting at Maynooth Castle, the ancestral family stronghold in Kildare,
when staggering news reached him from London. Because of the machinations of his foes in
Ireland, his father, the Earl of Kildare, had been thrown into the Tower and summarily beheaded
for treason. The story of the execution was untrue, although Kildare was doomed nevertheless.
He was languishing in a dungeon in the Tower where he was to die miserably seven months 
later. Believing his father murdered by the tyrant Henry VIII, young FitzGerald - half-crazed
with rage and grief - hurried to Dublin to summon a meeting of the vice-regal council. There,
within the ancient walls of St. Mary's Abbey, he flung down his sword of state, renounced his
allegiance to King Henry and declared war to the death against the English rule in Ireland. Some
of the council joined him. Others shrank in terror from the prospect of treason. Civil war 
convulsed Dublin and quickly spread to the nearby country. Many of FitzGerald's enemies -
including Archbishop Allen, whom he hated with special virulence - fled into Dublin Castle to 
seek shelter with the English garrison.
'Meanwhile, realising that he must control Dublin to have any hope of raising the whole country,
the rebel leader returned to Kildare to gather his army. By mid-July he was back outside the 
walls of Dublin. Beneath the diagonal red cross banner of the FitzGeralds were 5,000 of his own
followers and a host of clansmen sent by his allies, the O'Neills, O'Connors and O'Briens. Told
that the whole city would be laid in ashes if they resisted, the citizens flung open the gates and
Silken Thomas marched through the streets to besiege the walls of Dublin Castle.
'Week after week the mighty bastion of English power defied the rebels. The only satisfaction
FitzGerald had was closing his account with Archbishop Allen. On the rainy night of July 27 Allen
contrived to slip out of the castle, reach a waiting boat on the River Liffey and sail with a few
servants down into Dublin Bay. There, however, the little vessel was driven aground and Allen
was forced to seek refuge in a nearby village. Before dawn next day his whereabouts had been
betrayed to FitzGerald's headquarters. Silken Thomas himself rode from Dublin with a squad of
soldiers to see the man whom he blamed above all others for his father's fate. Frantically the
Archbishop knelt and begged for his life. After watching him grovel, FitzGerald shouted to his 
men, "Take the clown away!" and then dug his spurs into his horse. As he galloped off, the
soldiers beat out Allen's brains with their iron maces and flung his bloody corpse into a ditch.
No one could say whether Silken Thomas ordered the barbaric slaying. But it was significant 
that he at once sent a priest off to Rome to seek papal absolution - an errand that ended in
his excommunication instead of pardon. 
'Meanwhile, though half Ireland was in a turmoil of rebellion, Dublin Castle still stubbornly held
out against every assault. And by the end of August alarming reports were drifting in to the
rebel council which FitzGerald had installed in St. Mary's Abbey. A fleet carrying a great English
army under the veteran general Sir William Skeffington [c 1465-1535] was reputed to be 
awaiting a favourable wind off the island of Anglesey. More immediately menacing was the 
terrible ravaging of Kildare by the FitzGeralds' inveterate foes, Lord Ossory and his powerful 
Butler clan.
'Dozens of villages were burnt and their inhabitants butchered, crops destroyed and cattle
seized, until Thomas FitzGerald could delay no longer. Bitterly he raised the siege of Dublin 
Castle, marched his army back to his ancestral lands and launched a pitiless campaign against
the invaders. To the upheaval of rebellion was now added the horrors of civil war as partisans
of the FitzGeralds and their enemies fought murderously over a large part of central Ireland.
Nevertheless, Silken Thomas refused to despair, even when the English army landed in Dublin in
October to be welcomed with open arms by the fickle citizens.
'In much of the country the authority of King Henry had all but collapsed. English garrisons had
been killed or driven out and no power rivalled that of Thomas FitzGerald. News of his father's
death and his succession as 10th Earl of Kildare made his authority unquestioned among the 
rest of the family, including his five uncles, who were all great barons in their own right.
'Throughout the winter the 21-year­old new Earl remained within the stout walls of Maynooth
Castle, making preparations for renewing the rebellion on a greater scale in the spring of 1535.
He entertained grandiose visions of having himself crowned King of Ireland, though he knew that 
he could not maintain himself alone against the might of England. In January 1535 he dispatched
emissaries to King Charles V of Spain with gifts of fine Irish horses, falcons and hunting dogs and
proposals for a military alliance. FitzGerald even offered to hold his Irish realm as a vassal of the
Spanish monarch if he would send soldiers, guns and money to support the rebel cause. A string
of vague promises was all that Silken Thomas got in return. Then, in March 1535, the critical 
days of the rebellion began. While FitzGerald was absent mustering his allies, Skeffington's army 
cut a swath of ruin through Kildare and closed around the impregnable walls of Maynooth Castle. 
For days the English siege guns battered in vain at the ramparts. Every assault was hurled back 
with heavy losses. 
'Treachery finally brought Maynooth's downfall - a foretaste of the betrayals that were to drag 
Silken Thomas down to destruction in the months to come. Bribed with gold, the garrison 
commander one night ensured that the watch on the walls was drunk. Then, while his men "lay
snorting like hogs," he gave the signal for the English to storm the battlements. Hastening 
towards Maynooth with 7,000 men, FitzGerald was stunned to hear that the castle had already 
fallen and its garrison slaughtered without mercy [an act known as the "Maynooth Pardon"].
'A few weeks later, on the desperate battlefield of Clane, the last act in the tragic drama of 
Silken Thomas began. With his allies deserting him at every step, the rebel chief fell back into 
the heart of his ancestral domains. But nothing could halt the relentless enemy pursuit. Early in 
August the new English general, Lord Leonard Grey [later Viscount Grane], burned the last 
FitzGerald stronghold at Rathangan and hunted the fugitive deeper into the woods and bogs.
'At last, with only 16 half-starved followers left, FitzGerald sent an envoy to the English camp,
offering to surrender on Grey's promise that he would have honourable treatment and not suffer
death as an outlaw. On his own authority, Grey made the promise, but, when he took his 
famous prisoner to London, he found the vengeful King Henry had very different intentions.
Attainted as a "notorious traitor", the Earl of Kildare was thrown into the darkest and filthiest
hole in the Tower while the work of hounding down the rest of the FitzGerald clan went on. For
16 months, Silken Thomas rotted in his dungeon until all of his five uncles had been seized or
betrayed to the English by their enemies in Ireland. Then, on February 3, 1537, the young Earl
and his relatives were hanged and dismembered on the reeking butcher's block of Tyburn.'
Gerald Fitzgerald, 11th Earl of Kildare
The following is taken from Chapter IX of "True Irish Ghost Stories" by St.John D. Seymour and 
Harry L. Nelligan (Hodges, Figgis & Co., Dublin 1914).
'Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare, died in London on the 16th November, 1585; his body 
was brought back to Ireland and interred in St. Brigid's Cathedral, in Kildare. He was known as
'the Wizard Earl' on account of his practising the black art, whereby he was enabled to 
transform himself into other shapes, either bird or beast according to his choice; so notorious
was his supernatural power that he became the terror of the countryside.
'His wife, the Countess, had long wished to see some proof of his skill, and had frequently
begged him to transform himself before her, but he had steadily refused to do so, as he said if
he did and she became afraid, he would be taken from her, and she would never see him again.
Still she persisted, and at last he said he would do as she wished on condition that she should
first of all undergo three trials to test her courage; to this she willingly agreed. In the first trial
the river Greese, which flows past the castle walls, at a sign from the Earl overflowed its banks
and flooded the banqueting hall in which the Earl and Countess were sitting. She showed no
sign of fear, and at the Earl's command the river receded to its normal course.
'At the second trial a huge eel-like monster appeared, which entered by one of the windows,
crawled about among the furniture of the banqueting hall, and finally coiled itself round the
body of the Countess. Still she showed no fear, and at a nod from the Earl the animal uncoiled
itself and disappeared. In the third test an intimate friend of the Countess, long since dead,
entered the room, and passing slowly by her went out at the other end. She showed not the
slightest sign of fear, and the Earl felt satisfied that he could place his fate in her keeping, but
he again warned her of his danger if she lost her presence of mind while he was in another
shape. He then turned himself into a black bird, flew about the room, and perching on the
Countess's shoulder commenced to sing. Suddenly a black cat appeared from under a chest,
and made a spring at the bird; in an agony of fear for its safety the Countess threw up her arms
to protect it and swooned away. When she came to she was alone, the bird and the cat had 
disappeared, and she never saw the Earl again.
'It is said that he and his knights lie in an enchanted sleep, with their horses beside them, in a
cave under the Rath on the hill of Mullaghmast, which stands, as the crow flies, five miles to
the north of Kilkea Castle. Once every seven years they are allowed to issue forth; they gallop
round the Curragh, thence across country to Kilkea Castle, where they re-enter the haunted 
wing, and return to the Rath of Mullaghmast. The Earl is easily recognised as he is mounted on
a white charger shod with silver shoes; when these shoes are worn out the enchantment will
be broken, and he will issue forth, drive the foes of Ireland from the land and reign for a seven
times seven number of years over the vast estates of his ancestors. [The Curragh is a flat
open plain in County Kildare, and a 'Rath' is a circular hill fort protected by earthworks. Many
of these structures still exist in Ireland].
'Shortly before '98 [i.e. 1798] he was seen on the Curragh by a blacksmith who was crossing it
in an ass-cart from Athgarvan to Kildare. A fairy blast overtook him, and he had just time to 
say, "God speed ye Gentlemen" to the invisible "Good People," when he heard horses galloping
up behind him; pulling to one side of the road he looked back and was terrified at seeing a troop
of knights, fully armed, led by one on a white horse. The leader halted his men, and riding up to
the blacksmith asked him to examine his [horse]shoes. Almost helpless from fear he stumbled
out of the ass-cart and looked at each shoe, which was of silver, and then informed the knight
that all the nails were sound. The knight thanked him, rejoined his troop, and galloped off. The
blacksmith in a half-dazed state hastened on to Kildare, where he entered a public house, 
ordered a noggin of whisky, and drank it neat. When he had thoroughly come to himself he told
the men that were present what had happened to him on the Curragh; one old man who had
listened to him said: "By the mortal man, ye are after seeing 'Gerod Earla."  This fully explained
the mystery. Gerod Earla, or Earl Gerald, is the name by which the Wizard Earl is known by the
'One other legend is told in connection with the Wizard Earl of a considerably later date. It is
said that a farmer was returning from a fair in Athy late one evening in the direction of 
Ballintore, and when passing within view of the Rath of Mullaghmast he was astonished to see 
a bright light apparently issuing from it. Dismounting from his car he went to investigate. On
approaching the Rath he noticed that the light was proceeding from a cave in which were
sleeping several men in armour, with their horses beside them. He cautiously crept up to the
entrance, and seeing that neither man nor beast stirred he grew bolder and entered the 
chamber; he then examined the saddlery on the horses, and the armour of the men, and 
plucking up courage began slowly to draw a sword from its sheath; as he did so the owner's
head began to rise, and he heard a voice in Irish say, "Is the time yet come?" In terror the
farmer, as he shoved the sword back, replied, "It is not, your Honour," and then fled from the
place. It is said that if the farmer had only completely unsheathed the sword the enchantment
would have been broken, and the Earl would have come to his own again.'
Francis William Browne, 4th Baron Kilmaine
The 4th Baron Kilmaine committed suicide in 1907 in Paris. According to a report in 'The Times'
of 11 November 1907:-
'Our Paris correspondent telegraphed last night:- Lord Kilmaine, one of the representative Irish 
peers and a large landowner in Ireland, committed suicide about 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon
[9 November] by throwing himself out of the window on the fourth floor of the Hôtel d'Iéna,
where he was staying. Francis William Browne, the fourth Baron Kilmaine, who was born in 1843,
had long suffered from acute nervous disease and had apparently come to Paris for medical
treatment. Lady Kilmaine was with him in his sitting room yesterday, when he went quietly to
the window as if to look out, and suddenly threw himself over the balcony. Death was 
instantaneous, the skull being fractured. Lady Kilmaine fainted on seeing her husband step over
the balustrade. It is stated that the body is to be removed to the English church in the Rue
d'Aguesseau, awaiting the arrival of Lord Kilmaine's son.'
Unfortunately, the 4th Baron's suicide was mirrored nearly 40 years later when the 5th Baron
also committed suicide, as will be seen in the note below.
John Edward Deane Browne, 5th Baron Kilmaine
'The Times' of 30 August 1946 records the verdict of an inquest held into the death of the 5th
Baron Kilmaine, as follows:-
'A verdict of "Suicide while of unsound mind" was recorded at an inquest at Bexhill, Sussex,
yesterday on the body of Lord Kilmaine, 68, who died at Bexhill Hospital on Tuesday. Patrick
Cornelius Crimmins, secretary-companion to Lord Kilmaine, said that on Tuesday afternoon, on
returning from posting a letter, he found Lord Kilmaine in a sitting position on the floor in front
of a chair. There was a bottle of disinfectant on a table near the chair. Lord Kilmaine seemed
to be unconscious. Dr. Colin McIver, who stated that Lord Kilmaine died from carbolic acid 
poisoning, said that he attended him during the war years and his mental condition had
deteriorated since an illness in June. His mind was not normal and he had been certified.'
William Boyd, 4th Earl of Kilmarnock
The following article, which also relates to Arthur Elphinstone, 6th Lord Balmerinoch (which
title is spelled as Balmerino in the article) and Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, is taken from
the Australian monthly magazine "Parade" in its issue for September 1955:-
'One of the most romantic episodes in the story of the British peoples is the Jacobite Rebellion
of 1745, when the "Bonnie Prince Charlie" made his gallant but ill-planned bid to win back the
English throne for his exiled father, James III. But its consequences for himself and thousands
of those who helped him made it also one of the most tragic. Of the many grim incidents that
  climaxed the "Forty-five" Rebellion, one of the most dramatic was the execution of the Scottish
lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino on Tower Hill in April, 1746, for their parts in it. Eight months
later they were followed to the scaffold by the clan chief of the Frasers, Lord Lovat.
'All three men were of widely differing temperaments, and together they formed a trio that
exemplified the different motives that inspired those who rallied to the banner of the Stuarts
whatever the odds. But each of them had this in common; they died with stoic bravery, even
making a joke of death.
'Kilmarnock was 42 when he died; Balmerino 58 and Lovat 80. Kilmarnock died professing
repentance for his part in the "Forty-Five" and asking for clemency for those who fought by his
side. He claimed that poverty had driven him to support Prince Charles Stuart against England's
imported Hanoverian king. Balmerino, a bluff dragoon of unquenchable spirit, went to his death
cursing the Hanoverians and drinking a bumper to "the King over the water" - an uncompromising
Highland rebel to the last. Lovat was a hoary old rascal, who had coolly played Jacobites 
against Hanoverians for 50 years for his own purposes, and who joined the Stuart cause when
he felt sure of its success and of thereby reaping benefit for himself. But his courage in death
proved that a man need not necessarily live will to die well.
'Such were the types of men who from different motives supported the gay, blue-eyed Bonnie
Prince when he landed in the Hebrides and raised the Stuart standard in the wild valley of
Glenfinnan on August 19, 1745. Charles spent the night of September 15 at Falkirk where he
was joined by William Boyd, fourth Lord Kilmarnock who lived with his wife in Callender House, a
small castle a few miles from the camp.
'When the Prince's army entered Edinburgh, Arthur Elphinstone, Lord Balmerino, was among the
stream of adherents who came flocking to Holyrood for the proclamation of Charles' father as
King of Scotland, England and Ireland on September 18. Balmerino had been born in 1688, the
year that James II was forced to abdicate and William and Mary assumed the crown. He had 
  joined James II's son, the Old Pretender, in the abortive rebellion of 1715, but had escaped and
had lived in exile until 1733, when his father secured a pardon for him.
'Three days after Balmerino joined the Prince, the Highlanders swooped on Sir John Cope's
British force encamped at Prestonpans and hacked them to pieces in a few minutes. This ended
the hesitancy of a number of clan chiefs who now rallied to the Stuart prince's support. Among
them was Lord Lovat, senior chief of the Fraser clan, a man with as rascally a record as could
be found in spite of his privileged birth. More than 50 years before he had left Aberdeen 
University and recruited 300 Fraser clansmen to form part of a regiment to serve William and 
Mary. Then when  his cousin, the 10th Lord Lovat, died, he tried to marry his cousin's
daughter as a means of consolidating his claims to the chieftainship and to his cousin's estates.
Being baulked by the maiden's flight from home at his approach, he had turned on the widowed
Lady Lovat, cut her clothes from her body, raped her in the presence of his followers, and 
forced her to marry him herself in order to gain her estates.
'He had been outlawed, but had escaped to France where as the 12th Lord Lovat he played a
double game with English, Scots and French. For this he was imprisoned in France for ten years,
but he had again escaped and had gone to England in 1714, eventually returning to Scotland to
ingratiate himself in his countrymen's favour. For 25 years of alternating Jacobite and anti-
Jacobite intrigues in which he calmly betrayed both sides, Lovat had been pre-occupied with
the recovery of his own fortunes and estates. When the rebellion started he was torn between
joining the Prince - in which case his titles and estates would be forfeit if the rebellion failed -
and the promise of a dukedom given by Charles for his aid.
'The success of the Prince's forces at Prestonpans decided him that the Pretender would 
succeed in his mad venture, and he wrote to the Prince expressing regret that old age and
infirmity prevented him taking the field himself, but informing him that he was sending his son
with a strong force of Fraser clansmen to aid him. But to protect his own carcass in case the
rebellion failed, he wrote at the same time a cordial letter to Duncan Forbes, Lord President
of the Court of Session, expressing his regret that his son had taken this step and professing
his own attachment to the House of Hanover. In point of fact, the son had been most
unwilling to go, but had been compelled to do so by his cunning father.
'Balmerino and Kilmarnock were in the field in command of bodies of mounted grenadiers when
Charles marched out from Edinburgh in November for the invasion of England, and on that fatal
April 16, 1746, when the Scots, outnumbered and out-weaponed, lost their cause on the bare,
windswept moor of Culloden. Kilmarnock surrendered on the field and Balmerino escaped only
to be captured by Grant of Ballindalloch, who promptly handed him over to the Duke of 
Cumberland, the "Butcher of Culloden." Away in his lair, the wily old fox, Lovat, decided the
game was up and fled to the Highlands. But after much hardship in his wanderings to evade the
British redcoats, he was at last arrested on an island in Loch Morar.
'Balmerino and Kilmarnock had meanwhile been lodged in the Tower of London along with another
Scots rebel, the Earl of Cromarty. The three were tried together by their peers, although they
were taken in separate coaches to Westminster Hall. At the outset Balmerino proved his spirit.
There was a dispute about which vehicle should carry the axe, and Kilmarnock, a nervous type,
objected to travelling with it. But Balmerino called "Come, put in the coach with me." He pleaded
not guilty to the charge of high treason, while Cromarty and Kilmarnock pleaded guilty, evidently
with some hope of Royal clemency. For his part, Balmerino dragged out the proceedings by 
quibbling, like a true Scot, about an inaccurate rendering of his name and an incorrect dating of
his entrance into Carlisle. At the Bar of the House Balmerino showed complete disregard for his
fate, joked with the gentleman­gaoler, fingered the axe while he talked, and on one occasion
pretended to use it as a fan. 
'The trial lasted for nearly a week, during which time the three men were lodged in a cell at
Westminster, where Balmerino made determined efforts to keep everyone's spirits high. With
the best intentions in the world but somewhat tactlessly, he showed Kilmarnock how to lay his
his head on the block. "Don't wince, lest the stroke cut your skull or shoulders," he instructed,
"but bite your lips." Kilmarnock, though less callous than Balmerino, conducted himself through-
out the trial with such eloquent grace and dignity that many of the spectators wept, and one
young lady fell extravagantly in love with him. Later he and Cromarty petitioned the King for
pardons and George II exclaimed feelingly, "Heaven help me, will no one say a word of behalf of
Lord Balmerino? He's a rebel, but at least he's an honest one!"
'Balmerino, however, disdained to ask pardon from a king he regarded as a usurper. Kilmarnock's
appeal was refused, but Cromarty was allowed to go free after his wife - the mother of eight 
children and expecting a ninth - had fainted at George II's feet and had enlisted the help of the
Prince of Wales for a pardon.
'While awaiting execution Kilmarnock regretted his fate and his part in the rebellion. "For the two
Kings and their rights I care not a farthing which prevailed. But I was starving, and, by God, if
Mahomet had set up his standard in the Highlands, I had been a good Mussulman for bread," he
said. Balmerino, however, managed to enjoy himself in the shadow of the scaffold. He could
actually view it from one window of his prison. The other windows were stopped up because 
they gave on to the street and he used to entertain passers-by with seditious quips.
'According to the custom of the day, prisoners in the Tower were treated not so much like
criminals but as paying guests and were allowed to entertain friends and relatives.
Balmerino was at dinner with his wife when the Lieutenant of the Tower brought in his death
warrant. Lady Balmerino fainted. "Lieutenant," shouted the sanguine Scot, "you have spoilt my
lady's stomach with your damned warrant!"
'The execution was scheduled for August 18, and on that summer's morning the two peers were
taken to an apartment on Tower Hill. Kilmarnock was in black, but Balmerino wore a red-faced
blue army coat and a flannel waistcoat over his shroud. When the Lieutenant of the Tower 
handed them over to the Sheriff, he cried, in accordance with custom: "Long Live King George." 
Kilmarnock meekly responded, "Amen," but Balmerino shouted at the top of his lungs: "Long Live
King James!" 
'Kilmarnock died with great courage. He asked that the cloth be lifted from the scaffold rails to
give the spectators a better view, made a small speech, took off his coat and waistcoat, and,
placing his head on the block, gave the signal to the executioner by dropping his handkerchief.
His head was severed at one blow. Balmerino then came forward with military precision. Calling
for a glass of wine, he asked the by­standers to drink "Ain degrae ta Haiven" (an ascent to 
Heaven). Then he inspected the axe, running his finger along the edge, gave the executioner
three guineas for having despatched Kilmarnock so neatly, and commanded him to strike boldly -
"for in that, my friend," he said, "will consist thy mercy." He took a paper out of his pocket, put
on his spectacles, and read a declaration of his unshakeable loyalty to the House of Stuart and
his repentance for having once held a commission in the service of Queen Anne. It was this
treason, he assured them, which he was now expiating. He refused the further services of the
clergymen, and, going to a corner of the scaffold, gave his wig to a warder, put on a bonnet of
Scotch plaid, removed his coat and waistcoat and leant his head on the block. But the
executioner was so thrown out by the antics of his victim that he struck the first blow 
irresolutely, and it took three to sever Balmerino's head - one for each guinea.
'Lovat, the old fox, had betrayed so many people in the course of his long life that, unlike the
the other victims, his execution excited no pity, although he was then an infirm old man of 80.
On April 18, 1747, the evening before his execution, the warder expressed his sorrow at the
prospect of the bad day on the morrow. "Bad!" echoed Lovat. "For what? Do you think I am
afraid of an axe? It is a debt we must all pay, and better this way than by a lingering disease."
Like Balmerino, he responded "Long live King James" to the Lieutenant's cry. Part of the scaffold
collapsed as the executioner was whetting his axe. Several spectators were crushed to death.
As he surveyed the melee with a leer on his ugly old face, Lovat cried, "Ay, ay. The mair 
mischief, the better sport."  He undressed when some order had been restored as methodically
as though he were going to bed; then, as he laid his head on the block, the old Aberdeen
University pupil Lovat had been repeated quietly the line of Horace, "Dulce et decorum est pro
patria mori." [It is sweet and fitting to die for one's country]'
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