Last updated 03/07/2021
Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
1 Oct 1912 B[L] 1 Sir John Fletcher Moulton 18 Nov 1844 9 Mar 1921 76
to     Created Baron Moulton for life 1 Oct 1912
9 Mar 1921 MP for Clapham 1885-1886, Hackney South
1894-1895 and Launceston 1898-1906. 
Lord Justice of Appeal 1906-1912. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 1912-1921.  PC 1906
Peerage extinct on his death
18 Jul 1661 E[I] 1 Hugh Montgomery,3rd Viscount Montgomery c 1625 15 Sep 1663
Created Earl of Mount Alexander
18 Jul 1661
PC [I] 1660
15 Sep 1663 2 Hugh Montgomery 24 Feb 1651 12 Feb 1717 65
PC [I] 1685
12 Feb 1717 3 Henry Montgomery c 1652 22 Oct 1731
22 Oct 1731 4 Hugh Montgomery c 1680 27 Feb 1745
27 Feb 1745 5 Thomas Montgomery 7 Apr 1757
to     Peerages extinct on his death
7 Apr 1757
18 Oct 1947 E 1 Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas
Mountbatten 25 Jun 1900 27 Aug 1979 79
Created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
23 Aug 1946 and Baron Romsey and Earl
Mountbatten of Burma 18 Oct 1947
For details of the special remainders included in the
creation of these peerages,see the note at the 
foot of this page
Viceroy of India 1947-1948. Admiral of the
Fleet 1956. KG 1946  PC 1947  OM 1965
Lord Lieutenant Isle of Wight 1974-79. Chief of
the Defence Staff 1959-1965
27 Aug 1979 2 Patricia Edwina Victoria Knatchbull 14 Feb 1924 13 Jun 2017 93
13 Jun 2017 3 Norton Louis Philip Knatchbull, 8th Baron Brabourne 8 Oct 1947
31 Jan 1706 V[I] 1 Paul Davys 5 Aug 1716
Created Baron and Viscount Mount
Cashell 31 Jan 1706
5 Aug 1716 2 James Davys 1710 10 Mar 1719 8
10 Mar 1719 3 Edward Davys 1711 30 Jul 1736 25
to     Peerage extinct on his death
30 Jul 1736
22 Jan 1766 V[I] 1 Stephen Moore 1696 26 Feb 1766 69
Created Baron Kilworth 14 Jul 1764 and 
Viscount Mount Cashell 22 Jan 1766
26 Feb 1766 2 Stephen Moore 25 Jul 1730 14 May 1790 59
5 Jan 1781 E[I] 1 Created Earl Mount Cashell
5 Jan 1781
PC [I] 1785
14 May 1790 2 Stephen Moore 19 Mar 1770 27 Oct 1822 52
27 Oct 1822 3 Stephen Moore 20 May 1792 10 Oct 1883 91
10 Oct 1883 4 Stephen Moore 11 Mar 1825 9 Nov 1889 64
9 Nov 1889 5 Charles William Moore 17 Oct 1826 20 Feb 1898 71
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
20 Feb 1898 6 Edward George Augustus Harcourt Moore 27 Nov 1829 1 Apr 1915 85
to     Peerages extinct on his death
1 Apr 1915
2 Sep 1701 B[I] 1 James Hamilton,6th Earl of Abercorn 1661 28 Nov 1734 73
Created Viscount Strabane [I] and
Baron Mountcastle [I] 2 Sep 1701
See "Abercorn"
23 Mar 1736     James Hamilton 22 Oct 1712 9 Oct 1789 76
Summoned to the Irish House of Lords by a
Writ of Acceleration as Baron Mountcastle 
23 Mar 1736
He succeeded as 8th Earl of Abercorn (qv) in 1744
5 Nov 1797 V[I] 1 Henry Conyngham,3rd Viscount Conyngham 26 Dec 1766 28 Dec 1832 66
22 Jan 1816 E[I] 1 Created Viscount Mount Charles
and Earl Conyngham 5 Nov 1797, and 
Viscount Slane,Earl of Mount Charles
and Marquess Conyngham 22 Jan 1816
See "Conyngham"
10 Apr 1703 V[S] 1 John Lindsay-Crawford 12 May 1669 24 Dec 1708 39
Created Lord Kilbirny,Kingsburn and Drumry,
and Viscount of Mount Crawford 10 Apr 1703.
These titles were altered,26 Nov 1703,to
Lord Kilbirny and Drumry,and Viscount of 
See "Garnock"
31 Jul 1800 B[I] 1 Valentine Richard Quin 30 Jul 1752 24 Aug 1824 72
5 Feb 1822 V[I] Created Baron Adare 31 Jul 1800,
Viscount Mount Earl 5 Feb 1816 and
Viscount Adare and Earl of Dunraven
and Mount Earl 5 Feb 1822
See "Dunraven and Mount Earl"
20 Apr 1742 B 1 Richard Edgcumbe 23 Apr 1680 22 Nov 1758 78
Created Baron Edgcumbe of Mount
Edgcumbe 20 Apr 1742
MP for Cornwall 1701,St.Germans 1701-1702,
Plympton Erle 1702-1734 and 1741-1742 and 
Lostwithiel 1734-1741. Chancellor of Duchy
of Lancaster 1743-1758. PC [I] 1727
PC 1744  Lord Lieutenant Cornwall 1742-58
22 Nov 1758 2 Richard Edgcumbe 2 Aug 1716 10 May 1761 44
MP for Plympton Erle 1742-1747, Lostwithiel
1747-1754 and Penryn 1754-1758. PC 1756
Lord Lieutenant Cornwall 1759-1761
10 May 1761 3 George Edgcumbe 3 Mar 1720 4 Feb 1795 74
31 Aug 1789 E 1 Created Viscount Mount Edgcumbe
and Valletort 5 Mar 1781 and Earl of Mount
Edgcumbe 31 Aug 1789
Lord Lieutenant Cornwall 1761-1795  PC 1765
MP for Fowey 1746-1761
4 Feb 1795 2 Richard Edgcumbe 13 Sep 1764 26 Sep 1839 75
MP for Lostwithiel 1790-1791 and Fowey
1791-1795. Lord Lieutenant Cornwall 1795-1839
PC 1808
26 Sep 1839 3 Ernest Augustus Edgcumbe 23 Mar 1797 3 Sep 1861 64
MP for Fowey 1819-1826 and Lostwithiel 1826-
1830 and 1830-1832, and Plympton Erle 1830
3 Sep 1861 4 William Henry Edgcumbe 5 Nov 1832 25 Sep 1917 84
MP for Plymouth 1859-1861. Lord
Lieutenant Cornwall 1877-1917.  PC 1879
25 Sep 1917 5 Piers Alexander Hamilton Edgcumbe 2 Jul 1865 18 Apr 1944 78
18 Apr 1944 6 Kenelm William Edward Edgcumbe 9 Oct 1873 10 Feb 1965 91
10 Feb 1965 7 Edward Piers Edgcumbe 13 Jul 1903 9 Dec 1982 79
9 Dec 1982 8 Robert Charles Edgcumbe 1 Jun 1939 12 Jun 2021 82
12 Jun 2021 9 Piers Valletort Edgcumbe 23 Oct 1946
12 Nov 1945 B 1 Sir Edward Ratcliffe Garth Russell Evans 28 Oct 1881 20 Aug 1957 75
Created Baron Mountevans 12 Nov 1945
20 Aug 1957 2 Richard Andvord Evans 28 Aug 1918 12 Dec 1974 56
12 Dec 1974 3 Edward Patrick Broke Andvord Evans 1 Feb 1943 21 Dec 2014 71
21 Dec 2014 4 Jeffrey Richard de Corban Evans  [Elected 13 May 1948
hereditary peer 2015-]
8 Sep 1760 B[I] 1 John Cole 13 Oct 1709 30 Nov 1767 57
Created Baron Mountflorence
8 Sep 1760
30 Nov 1767 2 William Willoughby Cole 1 Mar 1736 22 May 1803 67
He was created Earl of Enniskillen (qv) in
1789 with which title this peerage then
23 Oct 1550 V[I] 1 Richard Butler 20 Dec 1571
Created Viscount Mountgarret
23 Oct 1550
20 Dec 1571 2 Edmund Butler 24 Nov 1602
24 Nov 1602 3 Richard Butler c 1578 1651
1651 4 Edmund Butler 1679
1679 5 Richard Butler 27 Feb 1706
27 Feb 1706 6 Edmund Butler 17 Jul 1663 25 Jul 1735 72
25 Jul 1735 7 Richard Butler 14 May 1736
14 May 1736 8 James Butler 13 May 1742
13 May 1742 9 Edmund Butler 6 Mar 1750
6 Mar 1750 10 Edmund Butler 9 Feb 1779
9 Feb 1779 11 Edmund Butler 27 Jul 1745 16 Jul 1793 47
16 Jul 1793 12 Edmund Butler 6 Jan 1771 16 Jul 1846 75
Created Earl of Kilkenny (qv) 20 Dec 1793
(extinct on his death)
16 Jul 1846 13 Henry Edmund Butler 20 Feb 1816 26 Aug 1900 84
For information on the Mountgarret Peerage Claim
of 1854, see the note at the foot of this page.
26 Aug 1900 14 Henry Edmund Butler 18 Dec 1844 2 Oct 1912 67
20 Jun 1911 B 1 Created Baron Mountgarret [UK]
20 Jun 1911
2 Oct 1912 15 Edmund Somerset Butler 1 Feb 1875 22 Jun 1918 43
22 Jun 1918 16 Piers Henry Augustine Butler 28 Aug 1903 2 Aug 1966 62
2 Aug 1966 17 Richard Henry Piers Butler 8 Nov 1936 7 Feb 2004 67
4 For further information on this peer,see the 
note at the foot of this page
7 Feb 2004 18 Piers James Richard Butler 15 Apr 1961
20 Jun 1465 B 1 Walter Blount c 1420 1 Aug 1474
Created Baron Mountjoy 20 Jun 1465
Lord High Treasurer 1465-1466.  KG 1472
1 Aug 1474 2 Edward Blount c 1467 1 Dec 1475
1 Dec 1475 3 John Blount 1445 12 Oct 1485 40
12 Oct 1485 4 William Blount 1478 8 Nov 1534 56
KG 1526
8 Nov 1534 5 Charles Blount 28 Jun 1516 14 Oct 1544 28
14 Oct 1544 6 James Blount c 1533 20 Oct 1581
Lord Lieutenant Dorset 1559
20 Oct 1581 7 William Blount c 1559 23 Jul 1594
23 Jul 1594 8 Charles Blount,later [1603] Earl of Devonshire 1563 3 Apr 1606 42
to     Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1600-1606. Lord
3 Apr 1606 Lieutenant Hampshire 1604. KG 1597
Peerages extinct on his death
31 Jan 1618 B[I] 1 Mountjoy Blount
5 Jun 1627 B[I] 1 Created Lord Mountjoy of Mountjoy
Fort 31 Jan 1618 and Lord Mountjoy
of Thurveston 5 Jun 1627
He was subsequently created Earl of
Newport (qv) in 1628 with which title these
peerages then merged until their extinction
in 1681
19 Mar 1683 V[I] 1 Sir William Stewart,3rd baronet Oct 1653 24 Aug 1692 38
Created Baron Stewart of Ramalton
and Viscount Mountjoy 19 Mar 1683
PC [I] 1672
24 Aug 1692 2 William Stewart 10 Jan 1728
PC [I] 1710
10 Jan 1728 3 William Stewart 7 Apr 1709 14 Aug 1769 60
to     Created Earl of Blessington (qv) in 1745
14 Aug 1769 Peerages extinct on his death
1 Jan 1712 B 1 Thomas Windsor,1st Viscount Windsor of   
Blackcastle c 1670 8 Jun 1738
Created Baron Mountjoy 1 Jan 1712
See "Windsor of Blackcastle"
30 Sep 1795 V[I] 1 Luke Gardiner 7 Feb 1745 5 Jun 1798 53
Created Baron Mountjoy 19 Sep 1789
and Viscount Mountjoy 30 Sep 1795
PC [I] 1780
5 Jun 1798 2 Charles John Gardiner 14 Jul 1782 25 May 1829 46
to     Created Earl of Blessington (qv) in 1816
25 May 1829 Peerages extinct on his death
21 Mar 1796 V 1 John Stuart,4th Earl of Bute 30 Jun 1744 16 Nov 1814 70
Created Viscount Mountjoy,Earl of
Windsor and Marquess of the County
of Bute 21 Mar 1796
See "Bute"
29 Jun 1763 V[I] 1 Hervey Morres 1707 6 Apr 1766 58
Created Baron Mountmorres 4 May 1756
and Viscount Mountmorres 29 Jun 1763
6 Apr 1766 2 Hervey Redmond Morres c 1743 17 Aug 1797
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
17 Aug 1797 3 Francis Hervey de Montmorency 31 Aug 1756 23 Mar 1833 76
23 Mar 1833 4 Hervey de Montmorency 20 Aug 1790 23 Jan 1872 81
23 Jan 1872 5 William Browne de Montmorency 21 Apr 1832 25 Sep 1880 48
For further information on the murder of this
peer, see the note at the foot of this page.
25 Sep 1880 6 William Geoffrey Bouchard de Montmorency 23 Sep 1872 2 Dec 1936 64
For information on the death of his widow, see
the note at the foot of this page
2 Dec 1936 7 Arthur Herve Alberic Bouchard
to     de Montmorency 6 Feb 1879 15 Oct 1951 72
15 Oct 1951 Peerages extinct on his death
8 Feb 1629 B[I] 1 Francis Annesley 2 Jan 1586 23 Nov 1660 74
Created Baron Mountnorris 8 Feb 1629
He succeeded to the Viscountcy of Valentia
(qv) in 1642
23 Nov 1660 2 Arthur Annesley,later [1661] 1st Earl of Anglesey 10 Jul 1614 6 Apr 1686 71
6 Apr 1686 3 James Annesley,2nd Earl of Anglesey 1 Apr 1690
1 Apr 1690 4 James Annesley,3rd Earl of Anglesey c 1670 21 Jan 1702
21 Jan 1702 5 John Annesley,4th Earl of Anglesey 18 Jan 1676 18 Sep 1710 34
18 Sep 1710 6 Arthur Annesley,5th Earl of Anglesey 1 Apr 1737
1 Apr 1737 7 Richard Annesley,6th Earl of Anglesey c 1681 14 Feb 1761
14 Feb 1761 8 Arthur Annesley,8th Viscount Valentia 7 Aug 1744 4 Jul 1816 71
20 Dec 1793 E[I] 1 Created Earl of Mountnorris
20 Dec 1793
PC [I] 1776
4 Jul 1816 9 George Annesley 4 Dec 1770 23 Jul 1844 74
to     2 MP for Yarmouth IOW 1808-1810
23 Jul 1844 On his death the Earldom became extinct
whilst the Barony passed to Viscount
Valentia with which title this peerage then
6 Sep 1660 E[I] 1 Sir Charles Coote,2nd baronet c 1610 18 Dec 1661
Created Baron Coote of Castle Cuffe,Viscount
Coote of Castle Coote and Earl of Mountrath 
6 Sep 1660
PC [I] 1660
18 Dec 1661 2 Charles Coote c 1630 30 Aug 1672
30 Aug 1672 3 Charles Coote c 1655 29 May 1709
PC [I] 1695
29 May 1709 4 Charles Coote c 1680 14 Sep 1715
MP for Knaresborough  PC [I] by 1711
14 Sep 1715 5 Henry Coote 4 Jan 1684 27 Mar 1720 36
MP for Knaresborough 1715-1720
PC [I] 1718
27 Mar 1720 6 Algernon Coote 6 Jun 1689 27 Aug 1744 55
MP for Castle Rising 1724-1734 and Hedon 
1742-1744  PC [I] 1723
27 Aug 1744 7 Charles Henry Coote 1725 1 Mar 1802 76
to     PC [I] 1761
1 Mar 1802 Created Baron Castle Coote 31 Jul 1800
Peerage extinct on his death
31 Jul 1800 B[I] 1 Henry Moore Sandford 28 Jul 1751 29 Dec 1814 63
Created Baron Mount Sandford 
31 Jul 1800
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
29 Dec 1814 2 Henry Sandford 10 Mar 1805 14 Jun 1828 23
For further information on the death of this peer,
see the note at the foot of this page
14 Jun 1828 3 George Sandford 10 May 1756 25 Sep 1846 90
to     Peerage extinct on his death
25 Sep 1846
23 Jun 1891 B 1 Sir George Stephen,1st baronet 5 Jun 1829 29 Nov 1921 92
to     Created Baron Mount Stephen
29 Nov 1921 23 Jun 1891
Peerage extinct on his death
3 Apr 1761 B 1 Mary Stuart,Countess of Bute Feb 1718 6 Nov 1794 76
Created Baroness Mount Stuart
3 Apr 1761
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
6 Nov 1794 2 John Stuart 30 Jun 1744 16 Nov 1814 70
He had previously succeeded as 4th Earl of
Bute (qv) in 1792 with which title this peerage
then merged and still remains so
14 Apr 1703 B[S] 1 Sir James Stuart 4 Jun 1710
Created Lord Mount Stuart,Cumra and
Inchmarnock,Viscount of Kingarth and
Earl of Bute 14 Apr 1703
See "Bute"
25 May 1880 B 1 William Francis Cowper-Temple 13 Dec 1811 16 Oct 1888 76
to     Created Baron Mount Temple 25 May 1880
16 Oct 1888 MP for Hertford 1835-1868 and Hampshire
South 1868-1880. President of the Board of
Health 1855-Feb 1857 and Sep 1857-1858.
Paymaster General 1859-1860. Chief
Commissioner of Works 1860-1866. PC 1855
Peerage extinct on his death
13 Jan 1932 B 1 Wilfrid William Ashley 13 Sep 1867 3 Jul 1939 71
to     Created Baron Mount Temple 13 Jan 1932
3 Jul 1939 MP for Blackpool 1906-1918, Fylde 1918-
1922 and New Forest and Christchurch
1922-1932. Minister of Transport 1924-1929
PC 1924
Peerage extinct on his death
28 Jun 1283 B 1 Roger de Mowbray 21 Nov 1297
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Mowbray 28 Jun 1283
21 Nov 1297 2 John de Mowbray 4 Sep 1286 23 Mar 1322 35
23 Mar 1322 3 John de Mowbray 29 Nov 1310 4 Oct 1361 50
4 Oct 1361 4 John de Mowbray 25 Jun 1340 9 Oct 1368 42
9 Oct 1368 5 John de Mowbray 1 Aug 1365 10 Feb 1382 16
He succeeded as 6th Lord Segrave (qv)
c 1375. Created Earl of Nottingham (qv)
in 1377
10 Feb 1382 6 Thomas de Mowbray  (also 7th Lord Segrave) 22 Mar 1366 22 Sep 1399 33
Created Earl of Nottingham in 1383 and
Duke of Norfolk in 1397 (qqv)
22 Sep 1399 7 Thomas de Mowbray,2nd Duke of Norfolk and
8th Lord Segrave 17 Sep 1385 8 Jun 1405 19
8 Jun 1405 8 John de Mowbray,3rd Duke of Norfolk and 9th
Lord Segrave 1392 19 Oct 1432 40
19 Oct 1432 9 John de Mowbray,4th Duke of Norfolk and 10th
Lord Segrave 12 Sep 1415 6 Nov 1461 46
6 Nov 1461 10 John de Mowbray,5th Duke of Norfolk and 11th
Lord Segrave 18 Oct 1444 17 Jan 1476 31
17 Jan 1476 11 Anne Plantagenet  (also Baroness Segrave - 12th
in line) 10 Dec 1472 16 Jan 1481 8
to     On her death the peerage fell into abeyance
16 Jan 1481
c 1484 12 John Howard,1st Duke of Norfolk and 13th Lord
Segrave c 1430 22 Aug 1485
to     Abeyance terminated in his favour. He was
22 Aug 1485 attainted and the peerage forfeited
1554 13 Thomas Howard  (also 14th Lord Segrave) 10 Mar 1536 2 Jun 1572 36
to     Restored to the peerage 1554. He was 
2 Jun 1572 attainted and the peerage forfeited
18 Apr 1604 14 Thomas Howard  (also 15th Lord Segrave) 7 Jul 1585 26 Sep 1646 61
Restored to the peerage 1604
26 Sep 1646 15 Henry Frederick Howard,2nd Earl of Norfolk
and 16th Lord Segrave 15 Aug 1608 17 Apr 1652 43
13 Apr 1639   He had been previously summoned to
Parliament as Lord Mowbray 13 Apr 1639
17 Apr 1652 16 Thomas Howard,later [1660] 5th Duke of Norfolk
and 17th Lord Segrave 9 Mar 1627 13 Dec 1677 50
13 Dec 1677 17 Henry Howard,6th Duke of Norfolk and 18th
Lord Segrave 11 Jan 1684
14 Jan 1678 18 Henry Howard,7th Duke of Norfolk and 19th
Lord Segrave 11 Jan 1655 2 Apr 1701 46
11 Jan 1684   He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Mowbray 14 Jan 1678
2 Apr 1701 19 Thomas Howard,8th Duke of Norfolk and 20th
Lord Segrave 11 Dec 1683 23 Dec 1732 49
23 Dec 1732 20 Edward Howard,9th Duke of Norfolk and 21st
to     Lord Segrave 5 Jun 1686 20 Sep 1777 91
20 Sep 1777 On his death the peerages of Mowbray and
Segrave fell into abeyance
Jan 1878 21 Alfred Joseph Stourton,20th Lord Stourton 28 Feb 1829 18 Apr 1893 64
The abeyance of the Baronies of Mowbray
and Segrave (qqv) were terminated in his
favour on 3 Jan 1878 and 18 Jan 1878
respectively when the peerages merged with
that of Stourton and so remain 
For information on the claim made to terminate
this peerage's abeyance in 1877,see the note
at the foot of the page containing details of the
Barony of Segrave
18 Apr 1893 22 Charles Botolph Joseph Stourton  (also 21st
Lord Stourton and 25th Lord Segrave) 23 May 1867 29 Jul 1936 69
29 Jul 1936 23 William Marmaduke Stourton  (also 22nd Lord
Stourton and 26th Lord Segrave) 31 Aug 1895 7 May 1965 69
7 May 1965 24 Charles Edward Stourton  (also 23rd Lord
Stourton and 27th Lord Segrave)  [Elected 11 Mar 1923 12 Dec 2006 83
hereditary peer 1999-2006]
12 Dec 2006 25 Edward William Stephen Stourton  (also 24th 
Lord Stourton and 28th Lord Segrave) 17 Apr 1953 30 Jan 2021 67
30 Jan 2021 26 James Charles Peter Stourton (also 25th Lord 12 Dec 1991
Stourton and 29th Lord Segrave)
11 Jul 1662 B[I] 1 Daniel O'Brien c 1580 c 1664
Created Baron Moyarta and Viscount
Clare 11 Jul 1662
See "Clare"
11 Sep 2020 B[L]  1 Daniel Michael Gerald Moylan 1 Mar 1956
     Created Baron Moylan for life 11 Sep 2020
23 Jun 1966 B[L] 1 Arthur Moyle 25 Sep 1894 23 Dec 1974 80
to     Created Baron Moyle for life 23 Jun 1966
23 Dec 1974 MP for Stourbridge 1945-1950 and Oldbury
and Halesowen 1950-1966.
Peerage extinct on his death
21 Jan 1932 B 1 Walter Edward Guinness 29 Mar 1880 6 Nov 1944 64
Created Baron Moyne 21 Jan 1932
MP for Bury St.Edmunds 1907-1931. Financial
Secretary to the Treasury 1923-1924 and 
1924-1925. Minister of Agriculture 1925-
1929. Secretary of State for Colonies 
1941-1942.  PC 1924
For further information on the death of this peer,
see the note at the foot of this page
6 Nov 1944 2 Bryan Walter Guinness 27 Oct 1905 6 Jul 1992 86
6 Jul 1992 3 Jonathan Bryan Guinness 16 Mar 1930
19 Mar 1929 B 1 Sir Berkeley George Andrew Moynihan,1st
baronet 2 Oct 1865 7 Sep 1936 70
Created Baron Moynihan 19 Mar 1929
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
7 Sep 1936 2 Patrick Berkeley Moynihan 29 Jul 1906 30 Apr 1965 58
30 Apr 1965 3 Antony Patrick Andrew Cairnes Berkeley
to     Moynihan 2 Feb 1936 24 Nov 1991 55
24 Nov 1991 On his death the peerage became dormant
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
26 Feb 1997 4 Colin Berkeley Moynihan 13 Sep 1955
MP for Lewisham East 1983-1992  [Elected
hereditary peer 1999-]
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
20 Jul 1971 B[L] 1 James Dawson Chichester-Clark 12 Feb 1923 17 May 2002 79
to     Created Baron Moyola for life 20 Jul 1971
17 May 2002 Prime Minister of Northern Ireland 1969-
1971.  PC [NI] 1966
Peerage extinct on his death
29 Jun 1915 B 1 Sir Kenneth Augustus Muir Mackenzie 29 Jun 1845 22 May 1930 84
to     Created Baron Muir Mackenzie
22 May 1930 29 Jun 1915
PC 1924
Peerage extinct on his death
16 Jul 1964 V 1 John Scott Maclay 26 Oct 1905 17 Aug 1992 86
to     Created Viscount Muirshiel 16 Jul 1964
17 Aug 1992 MP for Montrose 1940-1950 and Renfrew
West 1950-1964. Minister of Transport and
Civil Aviation 1951-1952. Minister of State
for Colonial Affairs 1956-1957. Secretary
of State for Scotland 1957-1962.  PC 1952 
KT 1973. Lord Lieutenant Renfrew 1967-80
CH 1962
Peerage extinct on his death
5 Feb 1626 E 1 Edmund Sheffield,3rd Baron Sheffield c 1564 6 Oct 1646
Created Earl of Mulgrave 5 Feb 1626
Lord Lieutenant Yorkshire 1603-1619
KG 1593
6 Oct 1646 2 Edmund Sheffield Dec 1611 24 Aug 1658 46
24 Aug 1658 3 John Sheffield,later [1703] 1st Duke of Buckingham 
and Normanby 8 Sep 1647 24 Feb 1721 73
24 Feb 1721 4 Edmund Sheffield,2nd Duke of Buckingham
to     and Normanby 3 Jan 1716 30 Oct 1735 19
30 Oct 1735 Peerages extinct on his death
3 Sep 1767 B[I] 1 Constantine Phipps 22 Aug 1722 13 Sep 1775 53
Created Baron Mulgrave 3 Sep 1767
13 Sep 1775 2 Constantine John Phipps 30 May 1744 10 Oct 1792 48
7 Jul 1790 B 1 Created Baron Mulgrave [GB] 7 Jul 1790
to     MP for Lincoln 1768-1774, Huntingdon
10 Oct 1792 1776-1784 and Newark 1784-1790. Joint
Postmaster General 1784-1789.  PC 1784
On his death the Barony of 1790 became
extinct whilst the Barony of 1767
passed to -
10 Oct 1792 3 Henry Phipps 14 Feb 1755 7 Apr 1831 76
13 Aug 1794 B 1 Created Baron Mulgrave 13 Aug 1794
7 Sep 1812 E 1 and Earl of Mulgrave 7 Sep 1812
MP for Totnes 1784-1790 and Scarborough
1790-1794. Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster 1804-1805. Foreign Secretary
1805-1806. First Lord of the Admiralty
1807-1810. Lord Lieutenant E Riding 
Yorkshire 1807-1824.  PC 1805
7 Apr 1831 2 Constantine Henry Phipps
He was created Marquess of Normanby (qv)
in 1838 with which title this peerage then
30 Jan 1984 B[L] 1 Frederick William Mulley 3 Jul 1918 15 Mar 1995 76
to     Created Baron Mulley for life 30 Jan 1984
15 Mar 1995 MP for Park 1950-1983. Minister for the Army
1964-1965. Minister of Aviation 1965-1967.
Minister of State,Foreign and Commonwealth
Office 1967-1969. Minister of Transport
1969-1970 and 1974-1975. Secretary of
State for Education and Science 1975-1976.
Secretary of State for Defence 1976-1979
PC 1964
Peerage extinct on his death
6 Feb 1299 B 1 Thomas de Multon 21 Feb 1276 1322 46
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Multon de Egremont 6 Feb 1299
1322 2 John de Multon Oct 1308 23 Nov 1334 26
to     On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
23 Nov 1334
26 Aug 1307 B 1 Thomas de Multon c 1282 c 1313
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Multon de Gillesland 26 Aug 1307
c 1313 2 Margaret Dacre
She married Ralph Dacre who was summoned
to Parliament as Lord Dacre (qv) in 1321
21 Oct 1783 B[I] 1 John Pennington 22 May 1741 8 Oct 1813 72
Created Baron Muncaster 21 Oct 1783
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this Barony, see the note at the foot
of this page
MP for Milborne Port 1781-1796,Colchester
1796-1802 and Westmorland 1806-1813
8 Oct 1813 2 Lowther Pennington 1745 29 Jul 1818 73
29 Jul 1818 3 Lowther Augustus John Pennington 14 Dec 1802 30 Apr 1838 35
30 Apr 1838 4 Gamel Augustus Pennington 3 Dec 1831 13 Jun 1862 30
13 Jun 1862 5 Josslyn Francis Pennington 25 Dec 1834 30 Mar 1917 82
11 Jun 1898 B 1 Created Baron Muncaster [UK] 11 Jun 1898
to     MP for Cumberland West 1872-1880 and 
30 Mar 1917 Egremont 1885-1892. Lord Lieutenant
Cumberland 1876-1917
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
Peerages extinct on his death
6 Feb 1299 B 1 Walter de Muncy c 1309
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
c 1309 Muncy 6 Feb 1299
Peerage extinct on his death
18 Jul 1716 D[L] 1 Ermengarde Melusina Schulenberg 1659 10 May 1743 83
to     Created Baroness of Dundalk,
10 May 1743 Countess and Marchioness of 
Dungannon and Duchess of Munster for life
18 Jul 1716,and Baroness Glastonbury,
Countess of Feversham and Duchess
of Kendal for life 19 Mar 1719
Mistress of George I
Peerages extinct on her death
20 May 1789 D 1 William Henry 21 Aug 1765 20 Jun 1837 71
to     Created Earl of Munster and Duke of
26 Jun 1830 Clarence 20 May 1789
Third son of George III. KT 1770  KG 1782
PC 1789
He succeeded to the throne as William IV
in 1830 when the peerage merged with the
4 Jun 1831 E 1 George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence 16 Jan 1794 20 Mar 1842 48
Created Baron Tewkesbury,Viscount
FitzClarence and Earl of Munster
4 Jun 1831
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of these peerages,see the note at the 
foot of this page
Illegitimate son of William IV. PC 1833
For information on the death of this peer,see
the note at the foot of this page
20 Mar 1842 2 William George FitzClarence 19 May 1824 30 Apr 1901 76
30 Apr 1901 3 Geoffrey George Gordon FitzClarence 18 Jul 1859 2 Feb 1902 42
2 Feb 1902 4 Aubrey FitzClarence 7 Jun 1862 1 Jan 1928 65
1 Jan 1928 5 Geoffrey William Richard Hugh FitzClarence 17 Feb 1906 27 Aug 1975 69
Paymaster General 1938-1939. Minister 
without Portfolio 1954-1957. Lord 
Lieutenant Surrey 1957-1973.  PC 1954
27 Aug 1975 6 Edward Charles FitzClarence 3 Oct 1899 15 Nov 1983 84
15 Nov 1983 7 Anthony Charles FitzClarence 21 Mar 1926 30 Dec 2000 74
to     Peerage extinct on his death
30 Dec 2000
17 Jun 2004 B[L] 1 Elaine Murphy 16 Jan 1947
Created Baroness Murphy for life
17 Jun 2004
20 Oct 2015 B[L] 1 Paul Peter Murphy 25 Nov 1948
Created Baron Murphy of Torfaen for life
20 Oct 2015
MP for Torfaen 1987-2015. Secretary of State
for Wales 1999-2002 and 2008-2009. Secretary
of State for Northern Ireland 2002-2005. PC 1999
17 Feb 1676 B[S] 1 John Murray,2nd Earl of Atholl 2 May 1631  7 May 1703 72
Created Lord Murray,Balvany and
Gask,Viscount of Balquhidder,Earl of
Tullibardin and Marquess of Atholl
17 Feb 1676
See "Atholl"
27 Jul 1696 B[S] 1 John Murray,2nd Marquess of Atholl 24 Feb 1660 14 Nov 1724 64
to     Created Lord Murray,Viscount
14 Nov 1724 Glenalmond and Earl of Tullibardine
30 Jun 1703 B[S] 1 for life 27 Jul 1696 and Lord Murray,
Balvenie and Gask,Viscount of
Balwhidder,Glenalmond and Glenlyon,
Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle,
Marquess of Tullibardine and Duke of
Atholl 30 Jun 1703
See "Atholl"
16 Aug 1686 B[S] 1 Lord Charles Murray 28 Feb 1661 19 Apr 1710 49
Created Lord Murray of Blair,Viscount
of Fincastle and Earl of Dunmore 
16 Aug 1686
See "Dunmore"
13 Aug 1912 B 1 Alexander William Charles Oliphant Murray 12 Apr 1870 13 Sep 1920 50
to     Created Baron Murray of Elibank
13 Sep 1920 13 Aug 1912
MP for Midlothian 1900-1904 and 1910-1912
and Peebles & Selkirk 1906-1910. PC 1911
Peerage extinct on his death
14 Feb 1985 B[L] 1 Lionel Murray 2 Aug 1922 20 May 2004 81
to     Created Baron Murray of Epping Forest
20 May 2004 for life 14 Feb 1985
PC 1976
Peerage extinct on his death
30 Jan 1628 B[S] 1 Patrick Murray c 1578 5 Sep 1644
Created Lord Murray of Gask and
Earl of Tullibardine 30 Jan 1628
See "Tullibardine"
28 Jun 1976 B[L] 1 Albert James Murray 9 Jan 1930 10 Feb 1980 50
to     Created Baron Murray of Gravesend for life
10 Feb 1980 28 Jun 1976
MP for Gravesend 1964-1970. Minister of
State,Board of Trade 1966-1968. Minister
of State,Technology 1968-1969
Peerage extinct on his death
c 1622 V[S] 1 Sir John Murray 13 Oct 1640
Created Lord Murray of Lochmaben
and Viscount of Annand ca 1622
See "Annandale" - extinct 1658
17 Sep 1964 B[L] 1 Sir Keith Anderson Hope Murray 28 Jul 1903 10 Oct 1993 90
to     Created Baron Murray of Newhaven
10 Oct 1993 for life 17 Sep 1964
Peerage extinct on his death
18 Aug 1786 B 1 John Murray 30 Jun 1755 29 Sep 1830 75
Created Baron Murray of Stanley and 
Earl Strange 18 Aug 1786
See "Atholl"
25 Apr 1604 B[S] 1 Sir John Murray 1609
Created Lord Murray of Tullibardine
25 Apr 1604 and Earl of Tullibardine
10 Jul 1606
See "Tullibardine"
25 Jul 1979 B[L] 1 Henry Oscar Murton 8 May 1914 5 Jul 2009 95
to     Created Baron Murton of Lindisfarne
5 Jul 2009 for life 25 Jul 1979
MP for Poole 1964-1979.  PC 1976
Peerage extinct on his death
25 Nov 1350 B 1 Thomas Musgrave after 1382
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
after 1382 Musgrave 25 Nov 1350
On his death the peerage is presumed to
have become extinct
15 Nov 1628 V[I] 1 Charles Maccarty 27 May 1640
Created Baron Blarney and Viscount
Muskerry 15 Nov 1628
27 May 1640 2 Sir Donough Maccarty,1st baronet 1594 4 Aug 1665 71
He was created Earl of Clancarty (qv) in 
1658 with which title this peerage then
1662 Charles Maccarty 3 Jun 1665
to     Summoned to the Irish House of Lords by a
3 Jun 1665 Writ of Acceleration as Viscount Muskerry 1662
He was the son and heir apparent of the 1st Earl
of Clancarty,but died before he could succeed
to that title
5 Jan 1781 B[I] 1 Sir Robert Tilson Deane,6th baronet 29 Nov 1745 25 Jun 1818 72
Created Baron Muskerry 5 Jan 1781
PC [I] 1777
25 Jun 1818 2 John Thomas Fitzmaurice Deane 27 Sep 1777 24 Dec 1824 47
24 Dec 1824 3 Matthew Fitzmaurice Deane 29 Mar 1795 19 May 1868 73
19 May 1868 4 Hamilton Matthew Tilson Fitzmaurice
Deane-Morgan 18 May 1854 9 Jun 1929 75
9 Jun 1929 5 Robert Matthew Fitzmaurice Deane-Morgan 14 Nov 1874 12 Jul 1952 77
12 Jul 1952 6 Mathew Chichester Cecil Fitzmaurice
Deane-Morgan 3 Nov 1875 3 May 1954 78
3 May 1954 7 Matthew Fitzmaurice Tilson Deane 30 Jul 1874 2 Nov 1966 92
2 Nov 1966 8 Hastings Fitzmaurice Tilson Deane 12 Mar 1907 14 Oct 1988 81
14 Oct 1988 9 Robert Fitzmaurice Deane 26 Mar 1948
10 Jan 1992 B[L] 1 Sir Michael John Mustill 10 May 1931 24 Apr 2015 83
to     Created Baron Mustill for life 10 Jan 1992
24 Apr 2015 Lord Justice of Appeal 1985-1992. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 1992-1997.  PC 1985
Peerage extinct on his death
16 Oct 2008 B[L] 1 Paul Myners 1 Apr 1948
Created Baron Myners for life 16 Oct 2008
The special remainder to the Viscountcy of Mountbatten of Burma created in 1946 and
the Barony of Romsey and Earldom of Mountbatten of Burma created in 1947
From the "London Gazette" of 27 August 1946 (issue 37702, page 4305):-
"The King has been pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm, bearing date
the 23rd instant, to confer the dignity of a Viscounty of the United Kingdom upon Acting
Admiral Lord Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, G.C.V.O., K.C.B. D.S.O., by the
name, style and title of Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of 
Southampton to hold to him and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten and to be 
begotten; and in default of such issue with remainder to his eldest daughter Patricia Edwina
Victoria Mountbatten by the name, style and title of Viscountess Mountbatten of Burma, of
Romsey in the County of Southampton and the heirs male of her body lawfully begotten; and
in default of such issue to every other daughter lawfully begotten of the said Lord Louis Francis
Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten successively in order of seniority of age and priority of birth
and to the heirs male of their bodies lawfully begotten."
From the "London Gazette" of 28 October 1947 (issue 38109, page 5074):-
"The King has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm, bearing date
the 18th instant, to confer the dignity of a Baron and an Earl of The United Kingdom upon Rear
Admiral The Right Honourable Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas, Viscount Mountbatten of 
Burma, K.G., G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., G.C.V.O., K.C.B., D.S.O., by the name, style and title of Baron
Romsey, of Romsey in the County of Southampton to hold to him and the heirs male of his body
lawfully begotten; and in default of such issue with remainder to his eldest daughter Patricia
Edwina Victoria, Baroness Brabourne, by the name, style and title of Baroness Romsey, of 
of Romsey in the County of Southampton and the heirs male of her body lawfully begotten; and
in default of such issue to every other daughter lawfully begotten of the said Louis Francis 
Albert Victor Nicholas, Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, successively in order of seniority of age
order of seniority of age and priority of birth and to the heirs male of their bodies lawfully
begotten; and in default of such issue with remainder to his eldest daughter Patricia Edwina
Victoria, Baroness Brabourne, by the name, style and title of Countess Mountbatten of Burma,
of Romsey in the County of Southampton and the heirs male of her body lawfully begotten; and
in default of such issue to every other daughter lawfully begotten of the said Louis Francis 
Albert Victor Nicholas, Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, successively in order of seniority of age
order of seniority of age and priority of birth and to the heirs male of their bodies lawfully
Charles William Moore, 5th Earl of Mount Cashell
The 5th Earl succeeded to the Earldom in 1889, on the death of his elder brother, who had
spent the last 15 years of his life confined in a lunatic asylum near Bristol. By his first wife,
the 5th Earl had a son and three daughters; the son was killed while playing polo in India,
leaving a baby son who became heir to the titles, but who died in infancy.
After the death of his first wife in 1892, the Earl became engaged to Lady Cowan, widow of 
Sir Edward Cowan, a wealthy whisky distiller. She, however, was treated very poorly by the
Earl, being jilted on the day of the intended marriage - the bride is said to have received
a letter from the Earl notifying her that he could not marry her when she was standing at the
entrance to the church.  She commenced an action for breach of promise against the Earl,
which was settled out of court for an alleged large amount. The Earl's excuse for not marrying
her was that he had just learned that she, in turn, had been cited in a breach of promise
action by a man named Bourne whom she had promised to marry.
In 1893, the Earl married, as his second wife, a peasant girl named Florence Cornelius - he was
67, she was 26.
The Mountgarret Peerage Claim of 1854
The following article, written by Dalrymple Belgrave, is taken from a series entitled "Romances
of High Life" published in the 'Manchester Times' in 1898:-
'The founder of the great Irish house of Butler followed Henry II to Ireland. He obtained a grant
of lands and settled there, and then for many centuries the history of the family was the history
of the country. Three Irish noble families descend from him. In 1328 the head of the house was
created Earl of Ormond. In 1571 [sic - should be 1550] a younger son of [the 8th] Earl of
Ormond was created Viscount Mountgarret. In the next century the representative of a younger
branch of the family was created the Earl of Carrick. From time to time the Butlers allied them-
selves with the old nobility of England, but they also married the daughters of old kings and 
chiefs of Ireland, and from these maternal ancestors, and from the land they lived in, they seem
to have derived much of their character and sympathies. The most Irish and the more turbulent
branch of the Butlers was the Mountgarret family. The Lord Mountgarret of that day took part
in the Irish Rebellion of 1641, and, though circumstances afterwards made him an adherent of
the Royal cause against Cromwell, he was always more of an Irish chieftain than a Cavalier.
Another Mountgarret rallied to the side of James II when Jacobitism became the cause of Irish
Nationalism, and he fought for King James as long as there was any fighting to be done, and 
then followed him into exile.
'In the next century, however, a Lord Mountgarret became a Protestant, and after that the 
family lived in quiet on their ancestral domain in the county of Kilkenny. When the 11th Viscount
Mountgarret died, towards the end of the 18th century, he left four sons. The eldest became
Viscount Mountgarret, but when he was little more than of age he was created the Earl of
Kilkenny. The same year he married, but a short time afterwards he became mentally afflicted,
and was found to be a lunatic. It happened that the family property was not entailed or settled
in any way, but was his absolutely, and, as there was no chance of his recovering or being able
to make a will, it was certain to go to his heir-at-law at his death. The second brother was
Somerset Butler, the third was Henry, the fourth Pierce. Somerset and Pierce both lived most of
their lives in their native country, taking a leading part in politics and county matters, Pierce
being colonel of the Kilkenny militia and member for the county.
'The fortunes of the third son, Henry, were more stormy and chequered. As a boy he was noted
for his good looks, for his daring in the hunting field, and for his excellence in every manly sport
and athletic exercise. An event, however, happened which caused him to leave his native place,
never to return to it. The wife of a neighbouring landowner fell in love him  and he ran away
with her - or rather, perhaps, she ran away with him, for he was only 20 years old. For some 
years they lived together, and then they parted. On coming of age Henry Butler had come into 
a younger son's portion of about £10,000, but this did not last him very long. He was just the
type of man who might have sat to Thackeray to have his portrait sketched as Rawdon Crawley.
Like the husband of Becky Sharp, he was a famous billiard player, and an adept at most games 
of skill and chance. He was a noted duellist, and a dangerous man to quarrel with, though he 
was an engaging fellow enough when he was in a good temper. Needless to say that amongst
sporting society at Melton, Newmarket, or London, or anywhere else where he might be, the 
big, handsome Irishman was a very well-known figure.
'Those were the days of the Prince Regent's Brighton and the Pavilion, and , needless to say,
amongst the young bloods who were attracted there was the Hon. Henry Butler. Another 
interesting person who was attracted to the famous Sussex town was a Mrs. Colebrook, a
wonderfully pretty little woman, who a few years before had been left a widow with two
daughters and a very comfortable jointure by her late husband, a gentleman of property in
Scotland. Her jointure was £1,500 a year, and, as the guardian of her two daughters, she had
another £1,000 a year. 
'In her late husband's will, however, there was one rather embarrassing provision. She was to
lose her jointure if she married again. Possibly this provision was not generally known; anyhow,
the widow's good looks were attractive enough, with her pecuniary advantages, to bring her a
great many admirers, and, amongst others, the Hon. Henry Butler. The big, handsome Irishman
very soon carried all before him, and then came the question of the unfortunate clause in the
will. That could not be got over, and Mrs. Colebrook seems to have had the greatest reluctance
to essaying the difficult experiment of living on nothing a year. Mrs. Colebrook, to suit her own
convenience waived the marriage ceremony. Seeking for the seclusion of a crowd, she left
Brighton for London, and took a house in Sloane-street. There Butler lived with her, but there
was some secrecy maintained. Every morning he was let out of the house by a maid-servant,
a young woman named Sarah Stride, who, years before, when she was a girl of 13, had gone
into Mrs. Colebrook's service. This went on for a year or so, Mrs. Colebrook giving birth to a 
daughter who was christened Henryetta, after her father. At the end of the year 1810 Mrs.
Colebrook left London and went to live at Edinburgh. It was afterwards suggested that her
reason for doing this was that she and Butler might take advantage of the Scotch marriage
law to make a secret contract of marriage which would be legally binding, and would legitimate
their offspring. There does not seem to be much to support this theory, as the child seems to
died before this date. Butler travelled with the lady as far as Newcastle. Mrs. Colebrook seems
to have managed to keep her relations with Butler a secret so far as to enable her to be
received in good society in Edinburgh. Butler's own affairs kept him in England, but she appears
to have got on very well without him. Possibly she did not miss him altogether disagreeably, for
he had a high temper, and they must have had a good many differences.
'It happened that there came to Edinburgh a young Irishman of the name of Taaffe, the son of 
a Roman Catholic gentleman of large property that brought in some £5,000 a year. He had
literary tastes and ambitions, and he wished to… moral philosophy under the great
professor, Dugald Stewart. At a party given by a lady of rank the young student of moral
philosophy met the pretty widow. Years afterwards, when he was an old man, he said that he
had never met anyone as beautiful as Mrs. Colebrook seemed to him. The attraction was 
mutual. Taaffe is described as a nice-looking little man, with a pretty, lady-like face. It is
likely enough that the nice-looking little man, with his literary tastes, contrasted very favourably
with the big sporting Irishman. Besides, Butler was under the disadvantage of being absent……
On their first introduction the widow asked him to come and call on her, and very soon he was 
in every respect put in Butler's place. After some little time, however, the latter seems to have
heard something of what was going on, and this brought him up from the more congenial Melton
to the intellectual atmosphere of Edinburgh.
'One evening, when Mr. Taaffe was at Mrs. Colebrook's house in Northumberland-street, 
Edinburgh, there was a great knocking at the front door. It seems that the lady had lately
heard from Butler, and a visit from him was not unexpected. The servants had been ordered
not to let him in, but Butler was not a very easy man to keep out. He swore and stormed,
and declared that the lady was his wife and the mother of his children, and that her house
was his. The servants were frightened, and became more frightened when, walking round
the house, he climbed a wall, and forced his way in through a back door.
'As to what took place after that there is some dispute. The story that was afterwards told
was that the widow, when she heard Butler in the house, became very much alarmed for the
safety of Mr. Taaffe. She left the room to go to Butler, but in order to secure the safety of the
student of moral philosophy she locked him in the room. But when she saw Butler she found
that there was only one way of pacifying him. He declared that things should go on as they
were no longer, and nothing would content him but that, then and there, they should enter
into a contract - which would be valid by Scotch law - by declaring before witnesses that they
were man and wife. In the meantime, Taaffe upstairs had found that he was locked up; and
becoming terrified at hearing the noise and talking, he believed there were thieves in the house,
and he began ringing away at the bell. Under these circumstances the servants - Johnson, a 
footman, his sister, and Sarah Stride, the maid - were summoned from the kitchen, and in their
presence Mrs. Colebrook said that Mr. Butler wished them to know that they were man and
wife. As to this part of the story there seems to have been some question, but there was no 
doubt that Butler was then induced to leave the house. At any rate, some short time after this
he and Mrs. Colebrook spent some days together near Edinburgh; but then they had a quarrel
and parted.
'That was in the early part of 1811. Later on in the year the widow went away with Mr. Taaffe
and, after travelling with him for some time, was married to him by a Roman Catholic priest at
Preston. But as she was a Protestant and he was a Roman Catholic, and the ceremony was a
secret one, it was not a valid marriage.
'In the meantime, Butler had found himself at Harrogate, which was then, as it has now become
again, very famous for its mineral springs. A feature in Harrogate society in those days was the
number of heiresses who were to be met with. They were, as a rule, ladies more distinguished
for their fortune than for their ancient family, hailing from the district where the trade, that was
already beginning to change villages into turns, was turning new men on to old acres.
That year the heiress of the season was a Miss Harrison. One evening she was at a ball at the
Green Dragon, to which Henry Butler came. One can well imagine the interest with which the
simple folk looked at this famous blood, the hero of so many duels and scandals who, though
he was 30 and lived, was still a very handsome man. There was a clergyman from the county
Kilkenny, who knew young Butler, and he introduced him to Miss Harrison.
'The lady was pretty, and it was likely enough that Butler had heard of her golden charms, and
was prepared to fall in love with her. Before the evening was over they were on very good 
terms, and before many days they were engaged to be married. There was only one difficulty.
The young lady's mother heard of the widow, and, though she appeared to have been of the
opinion that a reformed rake makes the best husband, she was not quite certain whether,
after what had happened in Edinburgh, Butler was eligible to be her daughter's husband at all.
'She took the course, however, of writing to the lady to ask how matters were, and, as the
latter replied that she had no claim on Butler, she considered the difficulty was removed. In
September that year, Butler was married to the great Yorkshire heiress, with all due form and
ceremony, at a church in Brighton, and for the rest of his life they lived quite happily together.
More, however, was heard of the pretty widow. Her union with the student of moral philosophy
was not destined to be a very lengthy or a very happy one. According to his story, he before
very long discovered some paper in his wife's possession which made him believe that she was
really Butler's wife, and that it was his duty to leave her. Before he took this course, however,
his father, who had heard of his marriage with the widow, and greatly disapproved of it, had
died, leaving the family property to a younger brother. A Scotch court of law had taken the
guardianship of her daughters away from the widow on account of her conduct, while before
long her estate fell into the hands of her creditors. Taaffe still was possessed of some £500
a year, and the lady took proceedings against him for restitution of conjugal rights. He appears
to have defended, amongst other grounds, on the plea that when he went through the
ceremony with her she was the wife of Butler. The lady replied to this by declaring that before
Butler came to Scotland she had already made a Scotch marriage with Taaffe, and she induced
her maid-servant, Sarah Stride, to make an affidavit that she had been a witness to such a
contract. The court, however, seems to have been of the opinion that no Scotch marriage
between her and Taaffe was proved, and that the subsequent marriage at Preston was illegal.
When it was clear that nothing could be got out of Taaffe, the lady appears to have turned 
her attention to he old flame, Butler, and to have set a gentleman of the law, who looked
after her interests, to get what he could out of him. What took place between them is not
quite clear, but there was a letter of Butler's complaining of Taaffe's 'trying to foist his wife on
him,' and saying that he could prove that before he came up to Scotland Taaffe had married
her, but as the witnesses were out of England 'he supposed he would have to pay the piper.'
'Matters seem, however, to have gone on without any difficulty being made, though there was
always the story of there having been a Scotch marriage. Years passed, and then Somerset
Butler, the second son, died. Then it became clear that if Henry survived his elder brother he
would inherit the family estates absolutely, and would be able to leave them to whom he liked.
It happened, however, that Lord Kilkenny survived all his brothers. Colonel Pierce Butler died 
leaving several sons. Then Henry Butler died and, in 1846, Lord Kilkenny died. The Kilkenny title
became extinct and Henry Butler's son assumed the title of Lord Mountgarret.
'There was the story, however, of the Scotch marriage, which, if true, would undoubtedly make
the children of Henry Butler illegitimate, and give the title and estates to Mr. Butler, the eldest 
son of Colonel Butler. Mr. Butler seems to have heard a good deal of what had happened that
evening at the house at Edinburgh, and he found out one of the alleged witnesses, who was 
still alive, Sarah Stride. She had lived with Mrs. Colebrook until that lady's death, which had
occurred some years before. At first, when she was spoken to Mr. Butler about the matter, she
would say nothing. It was all nonsense, she said: her mistress had never married. Afterwards 
she changed her mind, and told the story much as it has been related.
'Another person who was still alive was Mr. Taaffe, who was spending the remainder of his days
in Italy, living on the reduced income which, on account of that unfortunate episode in his life,
had come to him. He remembered all about that evening when his terrible fellow-countryman 
had forced him into the house at Edinburgh; but one thing he refused to do was to come over 
to England or Ireland to give any evidence in a court of law. He was, however, examined on 
commission, and proceedings having been somewhat tardily taken, the case came on for hearing
at Kilkenny Assizes, August 1854. For Mr. Butler, who was plaintiff in the case, appeared the
Attorney-General for Ireland, Mr. Brewster, and Mr. Whiteside, Q.C., counsel whose name and 
power of advocacy are still well remembered in Ireland. For Lord Mountgarret there appeared an 
even more famous and distinguished Irishman - that brilliant advocate and genial leader of the
Home Rulers in the early days of the party, the late Mr. Isaac Butt, Q.C.
'In his opening speech the Attorney-General told the story that has been related. To prove 
these facts he mainly relied upon the evidence of Sarah Stride. He admitted that this witness
had made a false statement in Scotland as to a marriage between her mistress and Taaffe, but
he said that she had been prevailed upon to do this by her mistress, for whom she had so great 
an affection, that she remained her servant without wages to her death. Sarah Stride was the 
first witness to give evidence, and she was cross-examined very severely by Mr. Butt. He asked
her about the statements she had made to Mr. Butler and Mrs. Butler, and tried to show that
her present story was only an afterthought, and that she had only told it after her marriage at
the persuasion of her husband, who thought that there might be money to be made. When 
Taaffe's evidence on commission was read, it became apparent that there was a remarkable 
discrepancy between his story and that told by Sarah Stride. Sarah said that Taaffe was 
hurried out of the bedroom where he was and put into a back drawing-room; that it was to the
former room that the servants were summoned to hear their mistress make the statement 
before Butler that they were man and wife. Taaffe, on the other hand, said that he was locked 
in the bedroom, and there he stayed, ringing the bell, until after Butler had gone away, when 
Mrs. Colebrook returned to the room. The rest of the evidence for the plaintiff consisted mainly 
of the reports that were current in the Butler family as to Henry Butler's Scotch marriage, and 
various statements that at different times had been made by the late Mr. Somerset Butler, who,
as the second son, had no interest in the matter as to his brother Henry's marriage being invalid
because of the Scotch marriage. To all this Mr. Butt objected as hearsay evidence. The judge,
however, held that such evidence was admissible, as questions of pedigree could be proved by 
hearsay evidence. A member of the Scotch bar was then called, who gave evidence to the 
effect that if the facts sworn to by Sarah Stride were true they would constitute a legal 
'Mr. Butt, in his speech for the defence, dwelt a great deal on the hardship of the case. Mrs.
Henry Butler had been publicly married, and for 43 years she had been recognised as Henry
Butler's lawful wife. Then he attacked Sarah Stride, on whose evidence the jury were asked to
believe that Henry Butler and Mrs. Colebrook, when she married Taaffe at Preston, had both
been guilty of bigamy. She had not told her story until after the death of the other alleged
witnesses to what took place. He showed how her story was inconsistent with that told by
Taaffe. Then he read a letter written by Mrs. Colebrook to Butler in July, 1811. The letter was
a somewhat double-edged piece of evidence. Mrs. Colebrook wrote that she kept Butler's letters
to prove your violence and improper conduct, in case you should have been wicked enough to
claim me as your wife in consequence of the disgraceful scene you made at my house.' The
evidence called for the defence was very short. The Roman Catholic priest who married Mrs.
Colebrook and Taaffe at Preston was still alive, and he was called to say that Taaffe informed
him that he had already been married in Scotland by a mode sufficient there, but as a Catholic
he was not content with it. The defence, however, mainly seemed to rest itself on the 
unreliability of the witness Sarah Stride. The judge seemed also to take the view that the case
depended upon whether or no the jury believed Sarah Stride, and he laid much stress on the
corroboration she received from the statements that Somerset Butler had made to several of
the witnesses as to the account which Henry Butler had given to him of what had taken place.
The letter of Mrs. Colebrook, read by the defence, showed that something of the sort had 
taken place. Certainly the summing-up was very favourable to the plaintiff, and the jury,
after some little consideration, found a verdict for him.
'There was no question that there would be an appeal, and the general opinion of lawyers was
that, on the ground of hearsay evidence having been improperly admitted by the judge, there
would be a new trial. A new trial was granted, not only on account of the hearsay evidence
having been improperly admitted, but on account of the judge having misdirected the jury
as to what the evidence was as to the marriage law of Scotland, and not having directed
them that the evidence was that if Mrs. Colebrook had been constrained by fear to say that
she and Butler 'were man and wife,' without any intention of marrying him, there was no
'On the second trial there was a marked difference in the tone of Mr. Butt's speech. He
appeared to be far more confident, and he made the speech of a counsel who is pretty certain
he will win. They could not depend on Sarah Stride, whose evidence, except so far as it was
not contradicted by Taaffe, would stand alone. But, admitting her statement to be true, he
ridiculed the idea that what was said to have taken place in the drawing-room, to the
accompaniment of the peals of the bedroom bell, could constitute a binding marriage. It was
no more a marriage than it would have been if Mrs. Colebrook had put her head out of the
window, and, in order to induce Butler to go away from the door, had owned him as her 
husband. In the second trial the hearsay evidence about Butler's marriage was shut out. Then,
when the judge summed up, he took a very different view of the case from the judge who
tried the first action. He laid much stress on the evidence that shewed that Mrs. Colebrook
was not a willing party to a marriage contract, and on her relations with Taaffe. There was
little doubt as to what the verdict of the jury would be, and, when they found for the 
defendant, their verdict was never questioned. 
'So Henry Butler's son, Lord Mountgarret, kept the estates. His cousin had taken steps to
raise the question again before a Committee of Privilege of the House of Lords, but after the
second trial he did not attempt to establish his claim, and it was practically admitted by
everyone that what had taken place in Scotland had not made the marriage of Henry Butler
Richard Henry Piers Butler, 17th Viscount Mountgarret
When a hot-air balloon chose to land near a shooting party on the Yorkshire moors in
October 1982, one of the shooters, Lord Mountgarret, expressed his displeasure by firing
three shots at the balloon. According to 'The Times' of 31 March 1983-
'Lord Mountgarret admitted to police firing a shot when a hot-air balloon owned by the Skipton
Building Society drifted across a grouse shoot on the moors above Appletreewick, North
Yorkshire, Skipton, North Yorkshire magistrates' court was told yesterday.
'The peer, who appeared on the charge sheet as Richard Henry Piers, Viscount Mountgarret,
aged 46, of Stainley House, South Stainley, near Harrogate, faced two charges of damaging
a balloon and acting recklessly or negligently in a manner likely to endanger an aircraft.
'The case was adjourned until April 29 after Lord Mountgarret asked to be dealt with by the
magistrates. The prosecution and the magistrates agreed.
'Mr Wilfred Anderson, for the prosecution, said that on October 27 [1982] a hot-air balloon
with a pilot and two passengers on board took off from a Skipton park on a half-hour flight.
It crossed Embsay Moor reservoir flying towards Appletreewick, where the pilot, Mr Graham
Turnbull, decided to land. As the flight ended he had advised the passengers that conditions
might prove difficult and they might have to pay for a further half hours' flight.
'The balloon descended to 50ft but was going too quickly to make a landing. Mr Turnbull
was obliged to gain height and extend the flight. The balloon climbed to 100ft, from where
Mr Turnbull saw a shooting party to the right of his line of flight. He realized he might disturb
them and shouted an apology.
'Mr Turnbull could control only the height of the balloon. Its direction was decided by the
prevailing wind. The immediate response from the party was that one of them swore at him.
The defendant raised his gun and fired two quick shots towards him.
'The pilot heard them strike the side of the basket and both passengers got down into the
bottom of the basket for protection. Mr Turnbull remained standing to control the balloon
and saw Lord Mountgarret reloading and once again point his gun at the balloon. The pilot
turned his back in order to protect his face and the gun was fired again, Mr Anderson said.'
When Lord Mountgarret appeared again before the bench on 29 April 1983, he was fined
a total of £1,000 and was ordered to pay £276 compensation for damage to the balloon.
Hervey Redmond Morres, 2nd Viscount Mountmorres
Mountmorres's initial ambition was to make a name for himself in Parliament. To that end
he prepared a speech that he intended to deliver. He was so pleased with his efforts
that he took the precaution of delivering an advance copy of the speech to the press.
So confident was he of its reception that he had interspersed in the margin of the speech
at various strategic points words such as "clapping", "cheering" and "wild applause."  It is no
doubt history's loss that the debate was postponed and the speech was never delivered.
If Mountmorres was not already somewhat deranged at the time, it appears that he became
so after receiving a brutal beating, which nearly killed him. The following extract is from the 
'London Packet or New Lloyd's Evening Post' of 21 August 1797:-
'A circumstance happened about twenty years ago [i.e. around 1777], which probably led to
the intellectual derangement of this nobleman, and which we hope will operate as a warning
to those who are inclined to indulge themselves in freaks of waggery and humour.
'Lord Mountmorres was at Bath about the time we allude to, and made some matrimonial
advances to a young Lady of considerable fortune in that place, at the same period. The Lady
did not like his Lordship, or liked someone else better. He therefore desisted from a pursuit that
seemed so unpromising, but immediately after received an anonymous letter, encouraging him 
to resume his addresses to the lady, assuring him, that, however she might appear publicly to
reject his suit, she was in reality disposed to give him her hand, when she should be permitted
to manifest her feelings. 
'Thus encouraged, Lord Mountmorres resumed his addresses; but finding, as before, that the
lady's behaviour did not correspond with the letter, he again relinquished the pursuit. In a very
short time he received another letter, importing that the lady was still, from motives of policy 
and submission to her family, obliged to conceal her sentiments, but that her feelings were 
strongly interested in his favour. It informed him that she was on the point of leaving Bath; 
that the crisis of his fate was arrived, desiring him to be ready with a chaise and four, at a 
certain time, at an inn on the road, where she was to stop; finally, it enjoined him to seize her, 
and bear her away to the carriage, whatever resistance she might think proper to make, in 
order to blind her relations.
'He followed the instructions contained in the letter implicitly, and found the lady at the inn at
breakfast. He seized her without ceremony, and was bearing her away to the chaise, where her
clamour brought her friends and servants about her, who all fell furiously upon him, knocked him
down, and so bruised him, that it was thought his life was really in danger.
'The effects of the blows he had received, the mortification, he felt in thus being made the
victim of wanton mischief, and the consciousness of the ridicule to which he was exposed, 
preyed upon his spirits, and made an impression upon his mind which never was effaced.'
On 17 August 1797, Mountmorres committed suicide by shooting himself through the head at
his London lodgings. The following report of the subsequent inquest is taken from 'St. James's
Chronicle or the British Evening Post' of 19 August 1797:-
'On Saturday, at twelve o'clock, the Coroner held an Inquest on the body of Lord Viscount
Mountmorres, at his Lordship's lodgings in York-street, St. James's. His Lordship's physician
and servant attended , and gave evidence of the capricious irregularity of his Lordship's late
conduct. His servant particularly stated, that on Thursday last his Lordship walked up and 
down stairs nearly all night, without assigning any cause. His Lordship was frequently of late
observed to possess and excessive flow of spirits, which generally degenerated into the
deepest rooted melancholy; at which times no persuasion could induce him to receive any 
kind of sustenance; a friend of his called upon him two days previous to the unhappy event,
while he was in one of those dejected moods, and took him out to a coffee-house, in order to
divert, if possible, his depression, but without effect. His Lordship, for several mornings past,
had drawn cash from his bankers, to the amount of 2,000 pounds, which he kept about him
all day, and deposited again at the bankers at night.  The day previous to his death, he sent
for his several tradesmen, and was particularly pressing to settle their accounts. One person
with whom he was generally very communicative, attended at his request to receive some
money due to him; and in the course of conversation his Lordship desired him to give him his
opinion of some new purchases of books which he had lately made, and on being answered
that they were a valuable collection, he replied "it was true, but that they were all lost."
His Lordship appeared to have meditated his melancholy fate some days before he put it in
execution; which was done of Friday morning, at ten o'clock, by putting a loaded pistol in
his mouth, and shooting himself through the head. The Jury, after a few minutes deliberation,
returned a verdict of Lunacy.'
William Browne de Montmorency, 5th Viscount Mountmorres
During the late 1870s and the 1880s, Ireland was gripped by a period of agrarian agitation, led 
by the Irish National Land League. This organisation was dedicated to bettering the position of 
tenant farmers and to a redistribution of land to tenants from landlords, and in particular, 
absentee landlords. The agitation led to a number of violent incidents occurring during a period
of civil unrest.
One of the casualties of this unrest was the 5th Viscount Mountmorres. The Viscount lived at 
Ebor Hall, on the shore of Lough Corrib in western Ireland. According to a report in The Times 
on 29 September 1880:-
'The scene of the murder lies midway between Clonbur, a village about nine miles from Ballinrobe, 
and Ebor Hall, his residence, on the northern shore of Lough Corrib……… The deceased nobleman
was comparatively unknown outside his own county, and took no active part in political matters.
He was generally liked until the land agitation unsettled the minds of the people. He had an 
escort of constabulary for some time, but recently dispensed with it, and contented himself
with carrying a loaded revolver in his breast-pocket. The distance from Clonbur to Ebor Hall is
about three miles, the road lying between low hills and broken rocky ground, which afforded
ample shelter to anyone desiring a lurking-place. Uneven stone walls bound the narrow road on
either side. On an eminence about a mile from Clonbur the assassin appears to have been 
waiting, and as Lord Mountmorres drove past, within arm's length of the wall, six shots were
discharged at him from a revolver, all taking effect. Death must have been instantaneous
from the nature of the wounds. A black mark surrounded the wound in the forehead, showing
that the muzzle of the weapon must have been quite close to it when fired. It is inferred from
this that, the first shots having thrown the deceased off the car mortally wounded, the 
assassin advanced closer and discharged the sixth shot into his forehead, sending the bullet 
through the skull. The facilities for the escape of the murderer were ample. A range of 
mountains arises about a quarter of a mile from the road on the one hand; while on the other
hand a stretch of rocky undulating ground sweeps down to the shores of Lough Corrib, about
half a mile on, across which he could escape in a boat, as in the case of the Leitrim murder (qv). 
There is no house within half a mile of the place. When Lord Mountmorres fell off, the horse 
continued on its way, and shortly after 4 o'clock reached the lodge, where it stopped. The 
champing of the bit attracted the attention of those inside. The gate was opened, and the 
horse and car brought in, but it was discovered that there was no driver. At first this did not 
cause any apprehension, as it was thought that his lordship might have got off to walk down 
the hill; but some minutes having elapsed without his appearing, a groom and some of the 
servants went out in search of him with a lamp. When they had gone about two miles they 
discovered his body lifeless and riddled with bullets on the roadway in a pool of blood. 
Assistance was procured and the body was conveyed home to Ebor Hall, where the inquest was
held. The revolver which he carried was found in his breast-pocket; three chambers were 
loaded and two unloaded, but the latter did not appear to have been recently discharged. He 
was a man of rather powerful build, and possessed of great coolness and courage.'
Four men were arrested on suspicion of the murder, but were subsequently released due to lack
of evidence.
The 5th Viscount was succeeded by his son who was only 8 years old at the time of his father's
murder. When researching the murder of the 5th Viscount, I stumbled upon a report in the
Chicago Daily Tribune of 16 June 1901 which states that 'Queen Victoria sustained that injury
to her knee which rendered her so lame during all the last ten years of her life through a 
strange accident.  Young Lord Mountmorres was a 14-year-old boy when, through his father's
murder in Ireland he succeeded to the title [he was actually only 8]. Owing to the destitution
in which the widow, Lady Mountmorres, and her numerous children had been left [there were
three surviving children at the time], Queen Victoria not only gave her free apartments at
Hampton Court Palace but likewise nominated the young peer to be a page of honour, an office
which carries with it an annual salary of [US]$1500 during the three years that it lasts. When
about to kneel before her to kiss her hand on his appointment mingled nervousness and
awkwardness caused him to tumble and fall forward. In order to save himself he grasped the
hand which the Queen had extended for him to kiss and dragged her down to the floor with
such violence that she was literally lamed for life. That ended the career of Lord Mountmorres
at court, and although with her usual generosity she allowed him to draw the pay of page of
honour, yet he was never permitted to fulfil the duties of the office.'  Although similar reports
appear in The Washington Post of 21 January 1902 and the Chicago Daily Tribune of 12 July
1904, there are by the same author and do not therefore count as independent
corroboration of this incident. As a result, I am unable to vouch for its truth.
Tempe Irene de Montmorency, 2nd wife and widow of William Geoffrey Bouchard de 
Montmorency, 6th Viscount Mountmorres
After Lady Mountmorres was found dead in her car, the resultant inquest was reported in "The
Times" of 18 March 1937:-
'The death in a garage at her parents' home at Lower Bourne, Farnham, of the Dowager Lady
Mountmorres, aged 27, widow of the 6th Viscount Mountmorres, three months after her 
husband's death, was inquired into at Farnham, Surrey, yesterday.
'Mr. Charles Frederick Cross said he last saw his daughter alive soon after 11 p.m. on Saturday.
She seemed quite alright. She was very well physically, but her husband's death had been a
great blow to her. He left her in the drawing-room, knitting. He was awakened about 2.30 on
Sunday morning by the barking of his daughter's dog. He got up, and found the dog was not in
his kennel and the door which he had bolted was unlocked. He concluded that his daughter
had taken the dog for a walk. He heard the engine of the car running, opened the garage door,
which was not locked, found his daughter sitting at the wheel of the car, and puller her out
into the open air.
'The Coroner - I understand some tubing was found? - That has been in the garage for a long
time. It was no use as a hose, so we didn't use it. The Coroner - I understand I shall also hear
that one end of the tube was dirty as if it had been joined to some dirty substance like an
exhaust pipe? - I don't know anything about that; the garage was not a very clean place. And
I understand a bread knife was found in the pocket of the car? - I don't know about that at all. 
You are satisfied that nobody else was involved in this tragedy? - Absolutely. Are you satisfied
that it was not an accident? - I concluded it was an accident. I have always thought it was. 
'Mr. Cross added that Lady Mountmorres was going to use her car early the next morning.
Apart from the death of her husband and sleeplessness there was no trouble of any kind. Dr. Eric
Gardner, of Weybridge, said death was due to asphyxia, and specific tests proved that the
asphyxia had been caused by carbon monoxide poisoning due to exhaust fumes from the car.
'The Coroner said that apart from Lady Mountmorres's natural sorrow and suffering from 
insomnia there was no evidence of anything unusual. To Mr. Cross he said: "With me it is a 
very definite and strong point that it would be wrong for this Court, on the evidence before it,
to find that the last act of your daughter was to take her own life in anything resembling a
criminal act unless the evidence is proved beyond all reasonable doubt. In this case the 
evidence cannot be proved beyond all reasonable doubt, and in those circumstances I shall
exclude suicide. At the same time I am unable to find definite evidence that it was an accident,
and in these circumstances I think that the proper thing to do is to record an open verdict
that she was found dead from carbon monoxide poisoning caused by fumes from the car."
The special remainder to the Barony of Mount Sandford created in 1800
From the "London Gazette" of 2 Aug 1800 (issue 15281, pages 889 and 890):-
'His Majesty hath been pleased to grant the following Dignities, and Letters Patent are preparing
to be passed under the Great Seal of this Kingdom accordingly [including] to Henry Moore 
Sandford, Esq; the Dignity of Baron Mount-Sandford, of Castlerea in the County of Roscommon,
and to his Heirs Male; and in Default of such Issue, to his Brother William Sandford, Esq; and
to his Heirs Male; and in Default of such Issue, to his Brother George Sandford, and to his Heirs
Henry Sandford, 2nd Baron Mount Sandford
Sandford made the fateful decision to attend the Ascot race meeting on 5 June 1828. While
he was in nearby Windsor, he was kicked to death during a brawl. 
The following report of the brawl is taken from 'The Derby Mercury' of 18 June 1828:-
'On the night of Thursday week [5 June] , a party of artisans, principally shoe-makers, were
drinking in the tap attached to the Castle Inn, Windsor…….they had some bets on the racing,
and one of them, named Church, produced a half-sovereign, by way of deposit. Another of 
the party named Fear [actually Fair], snatched up the half-sovereign, and substituted a 
sixpence in its stead. These parties had some angry words in consequence, and left the tap
together, going into the street. While there, Fear challenged his opponent to fight, but the
latter declined, and wished to have the matter dropped, and go home. The challenging and
refusing to fight attracted the attention of Lord Mount Sandford, and two or three
companions, who accompanied his Lordship. The latter endeavoured in vain to excite the
quarrel, encouraging the parties to fight. When they could not do so, they called them a
pack of cowards…….Among the party of shoemakers was a man, named Brinckley [actually
Samuel Brinklett]…………..and he replied sharply. A hustling commenced between all the 
parties, and Brinckley being knocked down in the scuffle, immediately, on regaining his legs,
commenced an indiscriminate attack on the party. The first object of his wrath happened
unfortunately to be Lord Mount Sandford, whom he struck down with a blow on the head
and, when down, kicked his Lordship violently about the head and neck. His Lordship was
conveyed into the Castle Inn, where he was remained since.'
Lord Mount Sandford died from a fractured skull on 14 June. At the subsequent Coroner's
Inquest, the jury returned a verdict of wilful murder against Brinklett and two brothers
named George and Thomas Hunt.
This account of the trial of the three accused appeared in 'Jackson's Oxford Journal' on
19 July 1828:-
'Samuel Brinklett, Thos. Hunt and George Hunt, shoemakers, were charged upon the
Coroner's Inquest, with the wilful murder of Lord Mount Sandford at the parish of New
Windsor, on the 5th of June, in the week of Ascot races……..It appeared that Brinklett had
behaved in the most ferocious and brutal manner to the unfortunate young nobleman, by
kicking him on the head whilst he lay on the ground,……
'Brinklett, in his defence, stated, that on the night in question there were confusion and
fighting about the streets of Windsor in all direction, between persons who called themselves
gentlemen, and the mob; that he was knocked down and beaten several times, and after
getting up the last time he had endeavoured to run away, and in the heat of the moment he
kicked someone who was on the ground - he had no idea who the person was, and had not
the slightest intention of causing Lord Mount Sandford's or any other person's death.'
In his summing-up, the Judge pointed out that the offence amounted to manslaughter rather
than murder, since there was no evidence of any malice aforethought. The jury found all 
three accused guilty. Brinklett was sentenced to transportation for the term of his natural
life, while the two Hunt brothers each received two years' imprisonment with hard labour.
The special remainder to the Barony of Mount Stewart created in 1761
From the "London Gazette" of 31 March 1761 (issue 10092, page 1):-
'The King has been pleased to grant unto the Right Honourable Mary Countess of Bute, the 
Dignity of a Baroness of the Kingdom of Great Britain, by the Name, Stile, and Title of Baroness
of Mount-Stuart, of Wortley, in the County of York. And the Dignity of Baron Mountstuart, of
Wortley, in the said County, to her lawful Issue Male, by John Earl of Bute.'
Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne
Moyne was the third son of the 1st Earl of Iveagh and therefore part of the immensely wealthy
Guinness brewing family. After an early career in the Army during which he fought in the Second
Boer War, he entered politics, being elected for Bury St. Edmunds for which he sat between 
1907 and 1931, before being created Baron Moyne in 1932.
After a period as Colonial Secretary in 1941-1942, Moyne was appointed Minister of State in the
Middle East, based in Cairo. It was here that he was assassinated by two men on 6 November 
According to a report in 'The Times' of 8 November 1944, 'A preliminary police inquiry has 
disclosed that the two assailants hired bicycles from a local shop which they had visited three
times in the past 10 days. They had been watching Lord Moyne's villa for several days and were 
lying in wait inside the garden when the Minister's car drove in. There was no guard outside. 
Lord Moyne, who was known as a quiet and unostentatious man, had in the past asked for the
removal of the day guard and the police escort car. There were accompanying him when he was
attacked his A.D.C. Captain Hughes-Onslow, and one of his personal secretaries, Miss D.S.
Osmond, neither of whom was hurt.
'As the car came to a standstill and the driver was opening the door the assassins closed in, 
firing revolvers at short range. The driver, Lance-Corporal A.H.W. Fuller, who was relieving the
Minister's regular chauffeur, was killed immediately and Lord Moyne was hit three times. The 
men then jumped on their bicycles and escaped down the street. The A.D.C. tried to pursue 
them but was soon outdistanced. An Egyptian driver in the neighbourhood raised the alarm, 
shouting: "Someone has killed the big Englishman."
'An Egyptian motor-cycle constable who was patrolling the district heard shouting and arrived
quickly. After he had been told the direction taken by the cyclists he immediately went in 
pursuit but soon lost track of the fugitives, but acting on intuition he turned towards a bridge,
where he overtook them. When they were ordered to surrender one of the assailants fired on
the constable and grazed his hand, but he dismounted  and was able to grab one of the men,
whom he handed over to a policeman on patrol. He gave chase to the other man and caught 
him with the help of a crowd. The two men were wearing new but dirty European clothes, some
of which they had purchased in Cairo.
Lord Moyne recovered consciousness in hospital and his pulse grew stronger after a blood
transfusion which made it possible to perform an abdominal operation' [but he died later that 
The two assassins were Eliyahu Bet-Zuri and Eliyahu Hakim, both of whom were members of 
"Lehi" , an armed underground Zionist faction often referred to as the "Stern Gang." Their goal
was the eviction of the British from Palestine and the foundation of a Jewish state. After being
tried by a military court, both were convicted of killing Moyne and his driver, and they were
executed by hanging on 22 March 1945.
Berkeley George Andrew Moynihan,1st Baron Moynihan
The following biography of the 1st Baron Moynihan is taken from the December 1963 issue of
the Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
'Soon after the Third Test between England and Warwick Armstrong's Australian team began
at Leeds in 1921, Jack Hobbs, who was fielding at cover point, faltered in his stride. He left the
field grey-faced at the end of the first over and fainted in the dressing-room. There was no 
need to ask if there was a doctor in the audience. Before a substitute fieldsman could run out 
to take Hobbs's place, an attendant had summoned Sir Berkeley Moynihan from his usual seat in
the members' stand. Moynihan's presence at that Test match saved Hobbs's life. While the
Australian batsmen piled on the runs the great Jack Hobbs lay on the operating table in the
Moynihan clinic, attended by the man whose hands had been described by King George V as
the cleverest in the world. Thanks to Moynihan's surgical skill Hobbs lived to play many more
Test matches and, as Sir Jack, to become the most famous veteran since W.G. Grace. Among
the spectators' at Headingley that day was a young man upon whom Moynihan had performed
an exactly similar operation 20 years before. The operation on this young man was not 
performed in a well-appointed clinic, but in a lonely cottage on the Yorkshire moors. While
a snowstorm howled over the moors, Moynihan worked by the light of a kerosene lamp with
only a nurse to help him. 
'Before he was 40 years old Berkeley Moynihan was regarded as the most distinguished surgeon
of his time. A genius of the operating theatre, he took an artist's delight in his own consummate
skill. So great was his prestige that a friend jokingly suggested that, like some of the Roman
emperors, he employ a remembrancer - an individual who, in the midst of his master's greatest
triumphs, was deputed to remind him that he, too, was human.
'Berkeley George Andrew Moynihan was born in Malta in 1865, He was the son of Andrew
Moynihan, one of the last representatives of a once notable Tipperary family, whose men had
been soldiers for many generations. But their lands and fortunes had dwindled so rapidly during
various Irish political upheavals that the only way Andrew Moynihan could embark on a military
career was to enlist as a shilling-a-day private. During the Crimean War Andrew became one of
the first soldiers to win the Victoria Cross [at the Battle of Sebastapol on 8 September 1855
when he encountered and killed five Russians and, while under heavy fire, rescued a wounded
officer]. Eventually he became a captain and musketry instructor at Malta, where he died of
fever [brucellosis] at the age of 37.
'There were no pensions for soldiers' widows then, and Mrs. Moynihan was without income
except for an allowance of £1 a week donated by a patriotic organisation. Back in England
with her three children, she settled in Leeds near relatives. But for the kindness of the Duke
of Cambridge, then Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, young Berkeley Moynihan would
have had to struggle for even a primary education. When the Duke learned that the family
of one of the first VC winners was in poor circumstances, he arranged for the boy to be
admitted to Christ's Hospital, the famous boys' school.
'Although Christ's Hospital was not a snobbish school, Moynihan soon found there was plenty
of subtle class distinctions. As the son of a man who had risen from the ranks he was ignored.
As a result of this he did not distinguish himself either at study or sport. His mediocre scholastic
record did not worry his mother. But she was seriously concerned when he said he wanted to
join the army. An army wife herself for many years Ellen Moynihan had accompanied her 
husband's regiment all over India and had learned to detest barracks life. 
'Suddenly young Berkeley changed his plans. So many Moynihans had been soldiers, he said, 
that the family had done more than its share of killing. Abandoning his dream of a military 
career, he said he intended to be the first Moynihan to save life instead of taking it. He wanted
to study medicine. From the outset Moynihan threw himself furiously into his studies. A 
relentless worker with a fine memory and limitless energy, he studied an average of 14 hours a 
day, and would work for 16 full hours immediately before an examination. Once Moynihan was 
being tested orally in physiology by the brilliant but bad-tempered Professor Michael Foster 
[1836-1907, MP for London University 1900-1905]. Declaring one of Moynihan's answers 
incorrect, the professor demanded his authority for giving such a reply. "Foster, sir," said 
Moynihan blandly. "What?" cried the examiner, "which Foster?" "You." replied Moynihan. "It's in
your own textbook." Fuming, Foster sent for the book. Moynihan was right.
'The other students were amazed that Moynihan should have endangered his future by arguing
with so noted an authority. "No risk at all," he retorted, "I learned his book by heart. I wouldn't
be such a fool as to stand up in front of Foster if I didn't know more physiology than he does
himself." On another occasion, after Moynihan had decided to concentrate on surgery, a 
lecturer remonstrated with him for always keeping his hands in his pockets. "Do you think I
adopted that slouching attitude when I was a student?" he demanded. "Well, sir, if you had,
perhaps you'd be able to do this," countered Moynihan, producing two lengths of fine silk. He
was training himself to tie surgical knots with only two fingers of either hand.
'Winning his degree in 1887, Moynihan began his professional career as a house surgeon at
Leeds General Hospital. Among the patients who came from the poorer quarters of the city,
Moynihan's infinite patience and kindness made him the idol of the children. Indeed, some were
accused of shamming illness and turning up in the out-patients' department just to get a word
of sympathy from the young doctor. 
'One winter night a grimy boy was carried in, apparently suffering from pneumonia. But before 
he could examine him, Moynihan had to unwind many yards of red flannel in which the boy was
encased. "Don't be frightened, laddie," said Moynihan, when the patient began crying bitterly.
"No one here will hurt you." "It ain't that, sir," gasped the boy. "But mum won't like you
unrolling me just after she sewed me up for the winter."
'By the time he was 29 Moynihan had collected a long string of degrees and had won the London 
University gold medal for surgery. In the 18 years between 1896 and 1914, the once penniless
medical student from Leeds became a medical celebrity. Before his time European surgeons
prepared for an operation merely by putting on a white apron over their ordinary clothes. He
was the first to wear the now customary white coat, an innovation that caused colleagues
to laugh at him behind his back. But that was nothing to the amusement caused by his intro-
duction of rubber gloves, which, as they were unobtainable in Britain, had to be imported from
America. His dress reforms became the subject of a comic song, whose author foresaw the time
when Moynihan would insist on masking his nurses and assistants. That came much sooner than
the satirists expected. His passion for sterile clothing once astounded a Parisian surgeon who
went to Leeds especially to watch him. The Frenchman made no comment on the gown and
gloves, but when he put on white rubber shoes he exclaimed: "Does he intend to stand inside
his patient?"
'Eventually Moynihan concentrated his researches on abdominal surgery. When he published a
textbook on diseases of the stomach and pancreas, his reputation, already established in 
Europe, crossed the Atlantic and became familiar in every surgical clinic in the United States.
In 1905 he produced what is usually regarded as his greatest work, his textbook "Abdominal
Operations." His work on gastric and duodenal ulcers was outstanding. By the beginning of
World War I his case records contained reports of more operations of this type than had ever
been carried out before by one man. As a result it became possible to identify the condition
at an early stage instead of, as he grimly put it, during the post-mortem.
'Knighted in 1912, Moynihan became a major-general in the Royal Army Medical Corps at the
outbreak of the 1914 war, and spent most of the next four years in the war zone. Although
similar operations had occasionally been attempted, he was the first surgeon to extract a
a bullet from the human heart. When he performed this operation on a soldier during the battle
Loos, he opened up new horizons for heart and chest surgery. Before America entered the war
the US War Department sent for Moynihan to advise their medical corps on the problems they
would encounter in France.
The war over, Moynihan returned to Leeds, where his clinic became a Mecca for surgeons from
all over the world. In 1926 he became president of the Royal College of Surgeons, and he
revitalised the institution by founding new anatomical, physiological and surgical laboratories.
He also inaugurated the Buckston Browne Research Institute in Kent.
'When he was raised to the peerage in 1929, Moynihan became the first surgeon to enter the
House of Lords since Lord Lister [in 1897]. He died in 1936 at the age of 71. Declining a State
funeral in Westminster Abbey, his family insisted that he be buried in Leeds near the hospital
to which he had devoted so much of his life.'
Antony Patrick Andrew Cairnes Berkeley Moynihan, 3rd Baron Moynihan
Moynihan seems to have spent most of his life avoiding either his creditors or the police. His
first need to practise this skill came when he was 20, when his father, who had criticized his
son over a liaison with a nightclub 'hostess', had received a punch in the face for his troubles.
He was also threatened with a summons from his first wife, an actress and nude model, to 
whom he had allegedly given similar treatment.
Anthony fled to Sydney, Australia, where he set himself up as a banjo player, shortly meeting
a Malayan fire-eater's assistant, who in time became his second wife. In 1957, he returned to
London and, being reconciled to his first wife, took a job as manager of the Condor Club in
Soho. The job and his first marriage didn't last, and in 1958 he married the former fire-eater's
assistant, who now worked as a belly dancer, with Moynihan as her manager. Soon after, he
was again obliged to flee the country to escape a court appearance over the theft of two bed
sheets. He opened a nightclub in Ibiza, which failed, and then returned to England, opening a
Spanish-themed coffee bar in Beckenham, Kent. When this also failed, he set off with his wife
on a tour of Europe and the Far East.
Moynihan's father, the 2nd baron, died in 1965. At the time of his death, the 2nd baron was
due to appear before the magistrates on a charge of importuning men for immoral purposes in
Piccadilly Circus.  After his death, an attempt was made to have the charge dismissed, but the
magistrate refused this application and marked the court register with the words 'no 
appearance; defendant deceased.'
The 3rd baron took the Liberal whip in the House of Lords. He strenuously argued that Gibraltar
should be returned to Spain. It was suggested that he had taken this stance since he needed
to be on good terms with the Franco government in case the need arose for him to flee to 
Spain. He did not have to wait long, for in 1970 he was facing 57 charges, including fraudulent
trading, false pretences, fraud against a casino and the purchase of a Rolls Royce with a dud
cheque. He escaped to the Costa del Sol, and when the British authorities sought his 
extradition, he fled again to the Philippines, where he lived for most of the rest of his life. Here
he married his third wife, a Filipino belly dancer whose family owned a chain of massage parlours
in Manila.
For the next 15 years, Moynihan lived comfortably under the protection of Ferdinand Marcos, 
who was able to solve a number of minor problems, such as the murder of a nightclub owner
who had married his ex-wife. After the fall of Marcos, Moynihan was pressured by the American
Drug Enforcement Agency to give evidence against noted drugs dealer Howard Marks.
By 1988, Moynihan was running a brothel known as the Yellow Brick Road, which was situated
within 100 yards of the British ambassador's residence in Manila. 
Moynihan's half-brother was Colin Moynihan, MP for Lewisham East 1983-1992 and Minister for
Sport under Margaret Thatcher. It is reported that, in 1985, the half-brothers had a falling-out
when Antony announced that he intended to sell the Victoria Cross which had been won by
their great-grandfather, Andrew Moynihan, in 1855 at Sebastapol in the Crimean War. Colin had
been obliged to pay Antony off with £22,000.
Moynihan died of a heart attack in late 1991, when the title became dormant, since there was
confusion as to who was the rightful heir, due to the number of marriages of the 3rd baron and
to questions over their legality. Colin Moynihan spent five years trying to prove his claim to the
title until, in 1997, the House of Lords Committee for Privileges decided 'that neither of the two
sons purporting to be sons of the 3rd baron can, in fact, be an heir to the peerage. In the case 
of the elder, Andrew, the Committee was shown overwhelming genetic evidence that he cannot 
be the son of the late Lord Moynihan; and so far as the younger, Daniel, is concerned, the
evidence clearly shows that he is the child of a bigamous marriage and is therefore illegitimate.
In those circumstances, it is clear beyond doubt that the petitioner, Colin Moynihan, must be 
the rightful heir and that his petition must succeed.'
The following (edited) report on this decision appeared in 'The Times' on 28 March 1997:-
'Evidence of blood testing was admissible in a peerage claim. The Convention for the Protection
of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1953), not having been incorporated into the law
of the United Kingdom, could not be relied on by a claimant; in any event, a right to succeed
to a peerage was not such a "right" or "possession" as was contemplated by article 14 of the
Convention and article 1 of the Protocol.
'The Committee for Privileges, having announced at the hearing on February 26 [1997] of the
petition by Colin Berkeley Moynihan claiming to have succeeded to the Barony of Moynihan that
Daniel Moynihan had not succeeded in his opposition to the petition and that the petitioner had
made out his claim to the barony, and the opinions of the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary having
been published, the report of the committee was agreed to.
'Lord Jauncey [of Tullichettle] said that the Barony of Moynihan had been created by letters 
patent of March 19, 1929 in favour of Sir Berkeley George Moynihan, KCMG Bt.,and the heirs
male of his body lawfully begotten and to be begotten.
'The second baron had died in 1965 and had been succeeded as third baron by the only son 
of his first marriage, Antony Patrick Andrew Cairnes Berkeley Moynihan ("Tony"), who had
been born in 1936 and died in the Philippines on November 24, 1991.
'The petitioner Colin was the only son of the second baron by his second marriage. In the 
event of there being no male descendant of Tony qualified to succeed to the barony, Colin
would be entitled to a writ of summons to attend the House of Lords as fourth baron. The
issues before the committee accordingly revolved around the possible existence of such
qualified male descendants.
'Tony had had a colourful life. In 1970 he had left England after a warrant had been issued for
his arrest on fraud charges. He had eventually settled in the Philippines where he owned and
operated a hotel and massage parlours.
'On February 22, 1981, after three previous marriages dissolved by divorce, he had married
Editha Eduarda Ruben in Manila. In summer 1988, she having borne no children and having
had unsuccessful fertility treatment, she and Tony had gone to a clinic in Los Angeles where
she had had an operation alleged to have involved the placing of one of more of her egg cells 
and one or more of Tony's sperm cells in a Petri dish and the implant of all the cells in her
fallopian tubes.
'On March 7, 1989, a son, Andrew, had been born to her in Manila. She had assumed that the
birth had resulted from the operation using Tony's sperm.
'In about December 1989 she and Tony had separated and in 1990 he had presented a divorce
petition to Tunbridge Wells County Court. Decree absolute had been granted on September 14.
'On December 22 he had gone through a form of marriage with Jinna Sabiaga in Manila and on
January 12, 1991, a son, Daniel, had been born to her. It was to be assumed that he was the
'Editha had first become aware that she had been divorced by him at the time of his death
in November 1991. In 1993 she had applied to have the decree set aside.
'In 1996, Sir Stephen Brown, President of the Family Division, had set aside the decrees nisi
and absolute, concluding that Tony in various ways had perverted the course of justice. The
result was that he had not contracted a valid marriage with Jinna Sabiaga and Daniel was
'For some years after Tony's death Editha had assumed that Tony was Andrew's father but she
later began to have doubts. In 1995 Colin and Editha had agreed that blood samples should be
taken from Andrew for comparison with samples given by Tony in 1991. Subsequent tests had
proved conclusively that Tony could not have been Andrew's father.
'His Lordship saw no reason why evidence of blood testing should not be admitted in peerage
claims just as in any other case in which paternity was disputed. It was a piece of evidence
like any other and the tribunal would attach as much or as little weight to it as appeared
appropriate. There had been no suggestion in "The Ampthill Peerage (1977)" (qv) that as a
matter of principle it was generally inadmissible to peerage claims.'
The special remainder to the Barony of Muncaster created in 1783
From the "London Gazette" of 16 September 1783 (issue 12476, page 1):-
'The King has been pleased to order Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the
Kingdom of Ireland, containing His Majesty's Grant of the Dignity of a Baron of that Kingdom
to John Pennington, Esq., and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten, by the Name, Stile
and Title of Baron Muncaster; with Remainder to his Brother Lieutenant-Colonel Lowther
Pennington, Captain in His Majesty's Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, and the Heirs Male
of his Body lawfully begotten.'
Josslyn Francis Pennington, 5th Baron Muncaster
Brigandage was an old-established institution in 19th century Greece, dating back hundreds of
years before the country won its independence from the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of
Constantinople in 1832. After independence had been achieved, the Greek government waged
almost a full-scale war against the outlaws, many of whom were veteran guerrillas of the 
struggle against the Turks. In the 20 years before 1870, hundreds of brigands were hunted 
down in the mountains of central and southern Greece. Some were given the formality of a trial; 
many were simply killed on the spot and their severed heads publicly displayed in Athens.
Establishment of more settled conditions brought an increasing stream of foreign travellers to
Greece to visit the famous sites of antiquity. To the surviving brigand gangs, the visitors offered
a tempting prey. Every season tourists were waylaid and robbed or taken to some remote
mountain hideout until a ransom was paid. English travellers were prized above all others, since
the Greeks were convinced that every Englishman, especially a lord, was a person of fabulous
When Lord and Lady Muncaster arrived in Athens in March 1870, the Greek government had 
declared that regular military patrols had made the country completely safe for miles around the
capital. With this assurance, Muncaster hired two carriages, engaged an escort of four armed
horsemen and collected a small party of friends for an outing to the plains of Marathon. With 
the Muncasters were Henry Lloyd and his wife, a rich English squire named Frederick Vyner and 
Edward Herbert, the secretary at the British Legation in Athens. The seventh member of the
party was the Count de Beyl, an official of the Italian Embassy.
Early in the morning of 11 April 1870, the cavalcade left Athens, reaching Marathon in time for 
a picnic lunch. After inspecting the ancient battlefield, in the late afternoon the travellers were
on their way back to Athens when they reached a thickly wooded defile near Mount Pentilicos.
Suddenly, a volley of shots was fired from the side of the road. Two of the horsemen were killed
and the remaining two threw down their arms. The carriages were surrounded by brigands and
hauled from the carriages. The brigands were led by Takos and Christos Arvanitakis, the most
feared outlaws in Greece.
Lady Muncaster and Mrs Lloyd were placed back in a carriage, and the two surviving horsemen
ordered to drive them back to Athens. The men were to be held pending payment of a ransom.
The brigands forced their male prisoners to accompany them into the surrounding hills. Not
until Muncaster and his companions were collapsing from cold, hunger and exhaustion did Takos
ordered his men to halt in a high, lonely valley occupied only by a few shepherds. There the
brigands roasted three sheep over a fire, gave the sheep's entrails to the prisoners to eat and
debated how to negotiate for their ransoms.
Finally, it was decided that Muncaster should be taken to Athens, there to raise the ransom and
return to free his companions. At the same time, however, Muncaster had to persuade the 
Greek authorities to grant the brigands an amnesty after they had collected the ransom and set 
their prisoners free; but the Greek government refused to agree to this condition. King George I
of Greece summoned a cabinet meeting and informed the British Embassy that no amnesty 
would be granted - the most they could promise was that Greek troops would not attack the 
brigands until after the prisoners had been released.
Muncaster raised $50,000 in cash while in Athens and on 18 April he set out with the money to
make contact with the brigands. He found them in the township of Oropos, where the brigands
swaggered openly, confident of receiving both ransom and amnesty. They had treated their
captives well. When Muncaster arrived, the atmosphere quickly changed - Takos refused to 
accept the money and swore he would never hand over his prisoners alive until he had been
given the required amnesty.
On 20 April a brigand scout reported that a regiment of soldiers was moving through the hills to
encircle Oropos. The brigand chief ordered a retreat back into the mountains with the prisoners.
The brigands split into two groups, one led by Takos, the other by Christos. Vyner and Count de
Beyl were taken by Takos and Lloyd and Herbert by Christos. Gradually the pursuing soldiers 
closed in and about noon the soldiers found Edward Herbert lying dead with two bullets in his
back. Nearby was the body of Lloyd, riddled with bullets and hacked by swords. Shortly after
the soldiers caught up with Christos, killing him and 12 of his men.
The pursuit was now concentrated on Takos who fled with his prisoners. As the soldiers began
pressing him closely, the Count de Beyl was killed by the brigands. Vyner's body was found a
mile further down the trail, cut down by a sword and shot three times through the body. Most
of Takos' party escaped under cover of darkness, with only seven brigands, all wounded, 
brought alive to Athens to stand trial. How many others had simply been slaughtered on the 
spot by the soldiers was not revealed.
The Greek government found itself in the middle of an international political tempest, with the
British demanding military intervention to make Greece safe for travellers. As a result, the
government soon fell. 
The trial of the seven brigands took place on 21 May 1870, with all seven being condemned
to death, although two of the brigands died from their wounds before the sentence was
carried out on the remaining five.
The special remainder to the Earldom of Munster and its subsidiary titles
From the "London Gazette" of 13 May 1831 (issue 18803, page 923):-
"The King has been pleased to direct letters patent to be passed under the Great Seal, granting
the dignities of Baron, Viscount, and Earl of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland unto
George FitzClarence, Esq. Colonel in the Army, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten,
by the names, styles, and titles of Baron Tewkesbury, Viscount FitzClarence, and Earl of 
Although not mentioned in the Gazette notice, the patent for these creations contained a 
special remainder which stated that, failing the heirs male of his body, the creations would 
descend to his three surviving brothers, Frederick FitzClarence, Adolphus FitzClarence and
Augustus FitzClarence and their respective heirs male.
George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence, 1st Earl of Munster
The Earl was the eldest natural son of King William IV by his mistress Dorothy Jordan. He 
committed suicide in March 1842. The following report of the subsequent inquest appeared
in the 'North Wales Chronicle' on 29 Mar 1842:-
'At seven o'clock on Monday evening an Inquest was held before Mr. Higgs, and a Jury 
composed of fourteen of the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, to inquire concerning the death 
of George Fitzclarence, Earl of Munster, who committed suicide on Sunday evening last, by 
discharging a pistol into his mouth. The Jury assembled in the back drawing-room of No. 13, 
Upper Belgrave-street, Pimlico, the late residence of the deceased and his family.
'The Jury were sworn and proceeded to view the body, which was lying in the library. The 
deceased was lying on his back in a large pool of blood, which had flowed partly from his right
hand, which was shot through, and partly from his head.
'It appeared from the evidence of various witnesses, that his Lordship had shot himself in a fit 
of temporary derangement, excited or strengthened by the disastrous news from India [i.e. the
massacre of British troops retreating from Kabul]. Dwelling on the fate of our troops at Cabul,
especially on the situation of the ladies, he frequently said, "Suppose one's own family had 
been in such a situation, what a dreadful thing to reflect on!"
A gentleman who was present said that so much did the deceased appear to feel with respect
to the repulses that our troops had lately met with in India, but more particularly in the fate of
the captured women, that he was very depressed by it, and there was but little doubt in the
minds of his friends that that alone had been the cause of his despondency, which had 
terminated in so melancholy a way.
'The Coroner said that there appeared to him to be quite sufficient to show that the deceased
had committed the deed himself, and it would be for the Jury to say what state of mind he was 
in at the time. They had heard the evidence, and they would give their verdict upon it as their
judgment directed.
'The Jury consulted for a few minutes, and then returned a Verdict that Deceased destroyed
himself by his own hands while labouring under temporary mental derangement.
'The pistol with which this act of self-murder was committed was one of a pair presented to
deceased by George IV, when Prince of Wales, and had the Prince of Wales's crest inlaid in
gold in the handle.'
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