Last updated 02/05/2020
Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
1 Aug 1776 B[I] 1 John Bourke c 1705 2 Dec 1790
Created Baron Naas 1 Aug 1776
He was subsequently created Earl of
Mayo (qv) in 1785
27 Jan 1681 B[S] 1 Robert Nairne c 1620 30 May 1683
to     Created Lord Nairne 27 Jan 1681
30 May 1683 On his death the peerage apparently became
suspended - see note at the foot of this page
22 Apr 1690 2 Lord William Murray c 1665 3 Feb 1726
to     Admitted to Parliament as Lord Nairne 1690.
1716 He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
[3 Feb 1726] [3] John Nairne c 1691 11 Jul 1770
[11 Jul 1770] [4] John Nairne 7 Nov 1782
[7 Nov 1782] William Nairne 1757 7 Jul 1830 73
17 Jun 1824 5 He obtained a reversal of the attainder 
in 1824
7 Jul 1830 6 William Nairne 1808 7 Dec 1837 29
7 Dec 1837 7 Margaret de la Billardrie,Baroness Keith [2nd in line] 12 Jun 1788 11 Nov 1867 79
11 Nov 1867 8 Emily Jane Mercer Elphinstone de Flahault 
Petty-Fitzmaurice 16 May 1819 25 Jun 1895 76
For information on her successful claim to this
peerage,see the note at the foot of this page
25 Jun 1895 9 Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice,
5th Marquess of Lansdowne 14 Jan 1845 2 Jun 1927 82
2 Jun 1927 10 Henry William Edmund Petty-Fitzmaurice,
6th Marquess of Lansdowne 14 Jan 1872 5 Mar 1936 64
5 Mar 1936 11 Charles Hope Petty-Fitzmaurice,7th Marquess
of Lansdowne 9 Jan 1917 20 Aug 1944 27
20 Aug 1944 12 Katherine Evelyn Constable Bigham 22 Jun 1912 20 Oct 1995 83
20 Oct 1995 13 Richard Maurice Clive Bigham 8 Jul 1934 5 Aug 2006 72
He had previously succeeded to the Viscountcy
of Mersey (qv) in 1979 with which title this
peerage then merged and so remains
17 Jul 1868 B 1 Sir Robert George Cornelis Napier 5 Dec 1810 14 Jan 1890 79
Created Baron Napier of Magdala
17 Jul 1868
Governor of Gibraltar 1876-1882. Field
Marshal 1883
For information regarding this peer,see the note
at the foot of this page
14 Jan 1890 2 Robert William Napier 11 Feb 1845 11 Dec 1921 76
11 Dec 1921 3 James Pearse Napier 30 Dec 1849 2 May 1935 85
2 May 1935 4 Edward Herbert Scott Napier 16 Dec 1861 20 Jul 1948 86
20 Jul 1948 5 Robert John Napier 16 Jun 1904 29 Oct 1987 83
29 Oct 1987 6 Robert Alan Napier 6 Sep 1940
4 May 1627 B[S] 1 Sir Archibald Napier,1st baronet c 1575 Nov 1645
Created Lord Napier of Merchistoun
4 May 1627
Nov 1645 2 Archibald Napier c 1625 4 Sep 1658
4 Sep 1658 3 Archibald Napier 7 Aug 1683
7 Aug 1683 4 Thomas Nicolson 14 Jan 1669 9 Jun 1686 17
9 Jun 1686 5 Margaret Brisbane Sep 1706
Sep 1706 6 Francis Napier c 1702 11 Apr 1773
11 Apr 1773 7 William Napier 1 May 1730 2 Jan 1775 44
2 Jan 1775 8 Francis Napier 23 Feb 1758 1 Aug 1823 65
Lord Lieutenant Selkirk 1797-1823
1 Aug 1823 9 William John Napier 13 Oct 1786 11 Oct 1834 47
11 Oct 1834 10 Francis Napier 15 Sep 1819 19 Dec 1898 79
Created Baron Ettrick [UK] 16 Jul 1872
Governor of Madras 1866-1872.  PC 1861
KT 1864
19 Dec 1898 11 William John George Napier  (also 2nd Baron  22 Sep 1846 6 Dec 1913 67
Baron Ettrick)
6 Dec 1913 12 Francis Edward Basil Napier  (also 3rd Baron 19 Nov 1876 22 Mar 1941 64
Baron Ettrick)
22 Mar 1941 13 William Francis Cyril James Hamilton Napier 9 Sep 1900 23 Aug 1954 53
(also 4th Baron Ettrick)
23 Aug 1954 14 Francis Nigel Napier  (also 5th Baron Ettrick) 5 Dec 1930 15 Mar 2012 81
15 Mar 2012 15 Francis David Charles Napier  (also 6th Baron 3 Nov 1962
28 Oct 1997 B[L] 1 Michael Wolfgang Laurence Morris 25 Nov 1936
Created Baron Naseby for life 28 Oct 1997
MP for Northampton South 1974-1997  PC 1994
21 Jan 2013 B[L] 1 John Alfred Stoddard Nash 22 Mar 1949
Created Baron Nash for life 21 Jan 2013
28 Jun 1940 B 1 Harry Louis Nathan 2 Feb 1889 23 Oct 1963 74
Created Baron Nathan 28 Jun 1940
MP for Bethnal Green NE 1929-1935 and
Wandsworth Central 1937-1940. Minister
of Civil Aviation 1946-1948.  PC 1946
23 Oct 1963 2 Roger Carol Michael Nathan 5 Dec 1922 19 Jul 2007 84
19 Jul 2007 3 Rupert Harry Bernard Nathan 26 May 1957
3 Aug 1646 B[S] 1 Patrick Maule 29 May 1585 22 Dec 1661 76
Created Lord Maule,Brechin and Navar
and Earl of Panmure 3 Aug 1646
See "Panmure"
28 Nov 1997 B[L] 1 Sir Francis Patrick Neill 8 Aug 1926 28 May 2016 89
to     Created Baron Neill of Bladen for life
28 May 2016 28 Nov 1997
Peerage extinct on his death
22 May 1801 V 1 Horatio Nelson 29 Sep 1758 21 Oct 1805 47
Created Baron Nelson 6 Nov 1798 and
18 Aug 1801 and Viscount Nelson
22 May 1801
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of the Barony of 1801,see the note at the 
foot of this page
On his death the Viscountcy and Barony of
1798 became extinct,whilst the Barony of
1801 passed to -
21 Oct 1805 2 William Nelson 20 Apr 1757 28 Feb 1835 77
20 Nov 1805 E 1 Created Viscount Merton and Earl 
Nelson 20 Nov 1805
For details of the special remainders included in the
creation of these peerages,see the note at the 
foot of this page
28 Feb 1835 2 Thomas Nelson 7 Jul 1786 1 Nov 1835 49
1 Nov 1835 3 Horatio Nelson 7 Aug 1823 25 Feb 1913 89
25 Feb 1913 4 Thomas Horatio Nelson 21 Dec 1857 30 Sep 1947 89
30 Sep 1947 5 Edward Agar Horatio Nelson 10 Aug 1860 30 Jan 1951 90
30 Jan 1951 6 Albert Francis Joseph Horatio Nelson 2 Sep 1890 23 Jun 1957 66
23 Jun 1957 7 Henry Edward Joseph Horatio Nelson 22 Apr 1894 8 Aug 1972 78
8 Aug 1972 8 George Joseph Horatio Nelson 20 Apr 1905 21 Sep 1981 76
21 Sep 1981 9 Peter John Horatio Nelson 9 Oct 1941 28 Mar 2009 67
28 Mar 2009 10 Simon John Horatio Nelson 21 Sep 1971
20 Jan 1960 B 1 Sir George Horatio Nelson,1st baronet 26 Oct 1887 16 Jul 1962 74
Created Baron Nelson of Stafford
20 Jan 1960
16 Jul 1962 2 Henry George Nelson 2 Jan 1917 19 Jan 1995 78
19 Jan 1995 3 Henry Roy George Nelson 26 Oct 1943 22 Sep 2006 62
22 Sep 2006 4 Alistair William Henry Nelson 3 Jun 1973
25 Jul 1701 V[S] 1 John Carmichael,2nd Lord Carmichael 28 Feb 1638 20 Sep 1710 72
Created Lord Carmichael,Viscount of
Inglisberry and Nemphlar and Earl of
Hyndford 25 Jul 1701
See "Hyndford"
10 Mar 1959 B 1 James Turner 6 Jan 1908 8 Nov 1980 72
Created Baron Netherthorpe 
10 Mar 1959
8 Nov 1980 2 James Andrew Turner 23 Jul 1936 4 Nov 1982 46
4 Nov 1982 3 James Frederick Turner 7 Jan 1964
3 Apr 1622 V[I] 1 Nicholas Netterville 1581 1654 73
Created Viscount Netterville 3 Apr 1622
1654 2 John Netterville 3 Sep 1659
3 Sep 1659 3 Nicholas Netterville 1689
1689 4 John Netterville 1674 12 Dec 1727 53
12 Dec 1727 5 Nicholas Netterville 7 Feb 1709 19 Mar 1751 42
19 Mar 1751 6 John Netterville Mar 1744 15 Mar 1826 82
15 Mar 1826 7 James Netterville 1774 13 Feb 1854 79
Claim allowed 14 August 1834
13 Feb 1854 8 Arthur James Netterville c 1800 7 Apr 1882
to     Claim allowed 1867. On his death the peerage
7 Apr 1882 is presumed to have become extinct
15 Jun 2004 B[L] 1 Dame Julia Babette Sarah Neuberger 27 Feb 1950
Created Baroness Neuberger for life
15 Jun 2004
11 Jan 2007 B[L] 1 Sir David Edmond Neuberger 10 Jan 1948
Created Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury
for life 11 Jan 2007
Lord Justice of Appeal 2004-2007. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 2007-2009. Master of the Rolls    
2009-2012. President of the Supreme Court 2012-
2017. PC 2004
19 Dec 1311 B 1 Hugh de Nevill 27 May 1336
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Nevill 19 Dec 1311
27 May 1336 2 John de Nevill 25 Jul 1358
to     Peerage extinct on his death
25 Jul 1358
24 Jun 1295 B 1 Ralph de Nevill 18 Oct 1262 18 Apr 1331 69
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Nevill de Raby 24 Jun 1295
18 Apr 1331 2 Ralph de Nevill 1291 5 Aug 1367 76
5 Aug 1367 3 John de Nevill 1341 17 Oct 1388 47
KG 1369
17 Oct 1388 4 Ralph de Nevill c 1364 21 Oct 1425
He was created Earl of Westmorland (qv) in
1397 with which title this peerage then
merged until its forfeiture in 1570
20 Nov 1459 B 1 John Nevill 29 Mar 1461
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Nevill de Raby 20 Nov 1459
29 Mar 1461 2 Ralph Nevill 1456 6 Feb 1499 42
He succeeded to the Earldom of
Westmorland (qv) in 1484 with which title
this peerage then merged until its
forfeiture in 1571
17 May 1784 V 1 George Nevill,17th Baron Abergavenny 24 Jun 1727  9 Sep 1785 58
Created Viscount Nevill and Earl of
Abergavenny 17 May 1784
See "Abergavenny"
15 Oct 2007 B[L] 1 Dame Lilian Pauline Neville-Jones 2 Nov 1939
Created Baroness Neville-Jones for life
15 Oct 2007
PC 2010
10 Sep 2013 B[L] 1 Dame Lucy Jeanne Neville-Rolfe 2 Jan 1953
Created Baroness Neville-Rolfe for life 
10 Sep 2013
18 Jul 1946 B 1 Sir Cyril Louis Norton Newall 15 Feb 1886 30 Nov 1963 77
Created Baron Newall 18 Jul 1946
Marshal of the RAF 1940. Governor General
of New Zealand 1941-1946.  OM 1940
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
30 Nov 1963 2 Francis Storer Eaton Newall 23 Jun 1930
25 Jul 1628 E 1 Robert Pierrepont 6 Aug 1584 30 Jul 1643 58
Created Baron Pierrepont 29 Jun 1627
and Viscount Newark and Earl of
Kingston-upon-Hull 25 Jul 1628
See "Kingston-upon-Hull" - extinct 1773
23 Jul 1796 V 1 Charles Pierrepont 14 Nov 1737 17 Jun 1816 78
Created Baron Pierrepont and
Viscount Newark 23 Jul 1796
He was subsequently created Earl Manvers
(qv) in 1806
NEWARK (Scotland)
31 Aug 1661 B[S] 1 David Leslie Feb 1682
Created Lord Newark 31 Aug 1661
Feb 1682 2 David Leslie 15 May 1694
to     Peerage extinct on his death
15 May 1694
12 Apr 1715 B[I] 1 George Cholmondeley,later [1725] 2nd Earl of
Cholmondeley 1666 7 May 1733 66
Created Baron Newborough 12 Apr 
1715 and Baron Newburgh 10 Jul 1716
See "Cholmondeley" with which title these 
peerages remain merged
5 Jan 1822 George Horatio Cholmondeley 16 Jan 1792 8 May 1870 78
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Newburgh 5 Jan 1822
He succeeded as Marquess of Cholmondeley (qv)
in 1827
23 Jul 1776 B[I] 1 Sir Thomas Wynn,3rd baronet 1736 12 Oct 1807 71
Created Baron Newborough 23 Jul 1776
MP for Carnarvonshire 1761-1764, St.Ives
1775-1780 and Beaumaris 1796-1807. Lord
Lieutenant Carnarvon 1761-1781
For information on this peer's second wife,
see the note at the foot of this page
12 Oct 1807 2 Thomas John Wynn 3 Apr 1802 15 Nov 1832 30
MP for Carnarvonshire 1826-1830
15 Nov 1832 3 Spencer Bulkeley Wynn 23 May 1803 1 Nov 1888 85
1 Nov 1888 4 William Charles Wynn 4 Nov 1873 19 Jul 1916 42
19 Jul 1916 5 Thomas John Wynn 22 Nov 1878 27 Apr 1957 78
27 Apr 1957 6 Robert Vaughan Wynn 17 Jul 1877 27 Oct 1965 88
27 Oct 1965 7 Robert Charles Michael Vaughan Wynn 24 Apr 1917 11 Oct 1998 81
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
11 Oct 1998 8 Robert Vaughan Wynn 11 Aug 1949
10 Jul 1606 E[S] 1 Mark Kerr 8 Apr 1609
Created Lord Newbottle 28 Oct 1587
and Earl of Lothian 10 Jul 1606
See "Lothian"
31 Oct 1631 E[S] 1 William Kerr c 1605 Oct 1675
Created Lord Newbottle and Earl of
Lothian 31 Oct 1631
See "Lothian"
23 Jun 1701 B[S] 1 Robert Kerr 8 Mar 1636 15 Feb 1703 66
Created Lord Kerr of Newbottle,
Viscount of Briene,Earl of Ancram and
Marquess of Lothian 23 Jun 1701
See "Lothian"
31 Dec 1660 E[S] 1 Sir James Levingston,2nd baronet c 1622 6 Dec 1670
Created Viscount of Newburgh
13 Sep 1647 and Lord Levingston,
Viscount of Kynnaird and Earl of 
Newburgh 31 Dec 1660
MP for Cirencester 1661-1670
6 Dec 1670 2 Charles Levingston c 1664 7 Apr 1694
MP for Circencester 1685-1689
7 Apr 1694 3 Charlotte Maria Radclyffe c 1694 4 Aug 1755
4 Aug 1755 4 James Bartholomew Radclyffe 23 Aug 1725 2 Jan 1786 60
2 Jan 1786 5 Anthony James Radclyffe 20 Jun 1757 29 Nov 1814 57
29 Nov 1814 6 Vincentius Josephus Philippus Gratilianus
Jacobus Gaspar Baldaxar Melchior
Dominicus Giustiniani 2 Nov 1762 13 Nov 1826 64
13 Nov 1826 7 Maria Cecilia Agatha Anna Josepha
Laurentia Donata Melchiora Balthassar
Gaspara Bandini 5 Feb 1796 2 Jan 1877 80
2 Jan 1877 8 Sigismund Nicholas Venantius Gaetano
Francisco Giustiniani-Bandini 30 Jun 1818 3 Aug 1908 90
For information on unsuccessful claims to the 
title and estates, see note at the foot of this page
3 Aug 1908 9 Charles Giustiniani-Bandini 1 Jan 1862 14 Jun 1941 79
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
14 Jun 1941 10 Maria Sofia Guiseppina Giustiniani-Bandini 4 May 1889 30 Apr 1977 87
30 Apr 1977 11 Giulio Cesare Taddeo Cosimo Rospigliosi 26 Oct 1907 18 Apr 1986 78
18 Apr 1986 12 Filippo Giambattista Camillo Francesco
Aldo Maria Rospigliosi 4 Jul 1942
10 Jul 1716 B 1 George Cholmondeley c 1666 7 May 1733
Created Baron Newborough 12 Apr 
1715 and Baron Newburgh 10 Jul 1716
See "Cholmondeley"
10 Sep 1675 B 1 Charles Fitzroy 18 Jun 1662 9 Sep 1730 68
Created Baron of Newbury,Earl of
Chichester and Duke of Southampton
10 Sep 1675
See "Cleveland"
25 Sep 1997 B[L] 1 Richard Mark Newby 14 Feb 1953
Created Baron Newby for life 25 Sep 1997
PC 2014
17 May 1623 E 1 Lodovick Stuart,2nd Duke of Lennox 29 Sep 1574 16 Feb 1624 49
to     Created Baron of Setrington and Earl     
16 Feb 1624 of Richmond 6 Oct 1613, and Earl of  
Newcastle upon Tyne and Duke of  
Richmond 17 May 1623  
Peerages extinct on his death  
16 Mar 1665 D 1 William Cavendish 16 Dec 1593 25 Dec 1676 83
Created Viscount Mansfield 3 Nov 1620
Baron Cavendish and Earl of Newcastle
upon Tyne 7 Mar 1628,Marquess of
Newcastle on Tyne 27 Oct 1643 and 
Earl of Ogle and Duke of Newcastle
16 Mar 1665
Lord Lieutenant Nottinghamshire 1626 and 1660-
1676 and Northumberland 1670-1676. KG 1650
25 Dec 1676 2 Henry Cavendish 24 Jun 1630 26 Jul 1691 61
to     MP for Derbyshire 1660 and Northumberland
26 Jul 1691 1661-1676. Lord Lieutenant Northumberland
1670-1689,Nottinghamshire 1677-1689 and
E,N and W Ridings Yorkshire 1688-1689  KG 1677
PC 1679
Peerages extinct on his death
14 May 1694 D 1 John Holles,4th Earl of Clare 9 Jan 1662 15 Jul 1711 49
to     Created Marquess of Clare and Duke
15 Jul 1711 of Newcastle 14 May 1694
Lord Lieutenant E Riding Yorkshire 1699-1711
N Riding 1705-1711 and Nottingham 1694-1711
MP for Nottinghamshire 1689  PC 1705
Peerages extinct on his death
11 Aug 1715 D 1 Thomas Pelham-Holles,2nd Baron Pelham of Laughton 1 Jul 1693 17 Nov 1768 75
to     Created Viscount Haughton and Earl
17 Nov 1768 of Clare 19 Oct 1714, and Marquess of
Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne
11 Aug 1715
The creations of 1714 and 1715 both contained a 
special remainder failing his issue male,to his brother
Henry Pelham in tail male
Secretary of State 1724-1754. Prime Minister
1754-1756 and 1757-1762. Lord Privy Seal
1765-1766. Lord Lieutenant Middlesex 1714-
1763, Nottinghamshire 1714-1763 and 1765-
1768 and Sussex 1761-1763. PC 1717
KG 1718
Peerage extinct on his death
17 Nov 1756 D 1 Thomas Pelham-Holles,1st Duke of Newcastle
upon Tyne 1 Jul 1693 17 Nov 1768 75
Created Duke of Newcastle under Lyne
17 Nov 1756 and Baron Pelham of
Stanmer 4 May 1762
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of the Dukedom, see the note at the 
foot of this page
17 Nov 1768 2 Henry Pelham-Clinton,9th Earl of Lincoln 16 Apr 1720 22 Feb 1794 73
Lord Lieutenant Cambridge 1742-1757 and
Nottinghamshire 1768-1794. KG 1752 
PC 1768
22 Feb 1794 3 Thomas Pelham-Clinton 1 Jul 1752 17 May 1795 42
MP for Westminster 1774-1780 and East
Retford 1781-1794. Lord Lieutenant
Nottinghamshire 1794-1795
17 May 1795 4 Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton 31 Jan 1785 12 Jan 1851 65
Lord Lieutenant Nottinghamshire 1809-1839
KG 1812
12 Jan 1851 5 Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton 22 May 1811 18 Oct 1864 53
MP for Nottinghamshire South 1832-1846
and Falkirk 1846-1851. First Commissioner
of Woods and Forests 1841-1846. Chief
Secretary for Ireland 1846. Colonial
Secretary 1852-1854 and 1859-1864.
Secretary of State for War 1854-1855.
Lord Lieutenant Nottinghamshire 1857-1864
PC 1841  PC [I] 1846  KG 1860
18 Oct 1864 6 Henry Pelham Alexander Pelham-Clinton 25 Jan 1834 22 Feb 1879 45
MP for Newark 1857-1859
22 Feb 1879 7 Henry Pelham Archibald Douglas
Pelham-Clinton 28 Sep 1864 30 May 1928 63
30 May 1928 8 Henry Francis Hope Pelham-Clinton-Hope 3 Feb 1866 20 Apr 1941 75
20 Apr 1941 9 Henry Edward Hugh Pelham-Clinton-Hope 8 Apr 1907 4 Nov 1988 81
4 Nov 1988 10 Edward Charles Pelham-Clinton 18 Aug 1920 25 Dec 1988 68
to     Peerages (except the Earldom of Lincoln) extinct
25 Dec 1988 on his death
11 Feb 1803 V[I] 1 Charlotte Gleadowe-Newcomen c 1747 16 May 1817
Created Baroness Newcomen 31 Jul
1800 and Viscountess Newcomen
11 Feb 1803
16 May 1817 2 Sir Thomas Gleadowe-Newcomen,2nd baronet 18 Sep 1776 15 Jan 1825 48
to     MP for co.Longford 1802-1806
15 Jan 1825 Peerages extinct on his death
17 May 1681 V[S] 1 Charles Cheyne 23 Oct 1625 30 Jun 1698 72
Created Lord Cheyne [S] and Viscount
Newhaven [S] 17 May 1681
MP for Amersham 1660,Great Marlow 1666-
1679,Harwich 1690-1695 and Newport 1690 and
30 Jun 1698 2 William Cheyne 14 Jul 1657 26 May 1728 70
to     MP for Amersham 1681-1687,1698-1699,1701,
26 May 1728 1701-1702 and 1705-1707. Appleby 1689-1695
Buckinghamshire 1696-1701 and 1702-1705
Lord Lieutenant Buckinghamshire Jun-Dec 1702
and 1712-1714
Peerages extinct on his death
26 Jul 1776 B[I] 1 Sir William Mayne,1st baronet 1722 28 May 1794 71
to     Created Baron Newhaven of Carrick
28 May 1794 Mayne 26 Jul 1776
MP for Canterbury 1774-1780 and Gatton
1780-1790  PC [I] 1766
Peerage extinct on his death
19 Jan 1898 B 1 Sir William Wallace Hozier,1st baronet 24 Feb 1825 30 Jan 1906 80
Created Baron Newlands 19 Jan 1898
30 Jan 1906 2 James Henry Cecil Hozier 4 Apr 1851 5 Sep 1929 78
to     MP for Lanarkshire South 1886-1906
5 Sep 1929 Lord Lieutenant Lanarkshire 1915-1921
Peerage extinct on his death
8 Apr 1703 B[S] 1 John Dalrymple,2nd Viscount of Stair 1648 8 Jan 1707 58
Created Lord Newliston,Glenluce,
and Stranraer,Viscount Dalrymple and
Earl of Stair 8 Apr 1703
See "Stair"
14 Jul 2010 B[L] 1 Helen Newlove 1965
Created Baroness Newlove for life 14 Jul 2010
3 Aug 1628 E 1 Mountjoy Blount c 1597 12 Feb 1666
Created Lord Mountjoy of Mountjoy
Fort 31 Jan 1618,Lord Mountjoy of
Thurveston 5 Jun 1627 and Earl of
Newport 3 Aug 1628
12 Feb 1666 2 Mountjoy Blount c 1630 20 Mar 1675
20 Mar 1675 3 Charles Blount 10 Jan 1634 4 May 1675 41
4 May 1675 4 Henry Blount 25 Sep 1679
to     Peerage extinct on his death
25 Sep 1679
30 Nov 1815 V 1 Orlando Bridgeman 19 Mar 1762 7 Sep 1825 63
Created Viscount Newport and Earl of
Bradford 30 Nov 1815
See "Bradford"
11 Mar 1675 V 1 Francis Newport,2nd Baron Newport of
High Ercall 23 Feb 1620 19 Sep 1708 88
Created Viscount Newport of Bradford
11 Mar 1675
He was created Earl of Bradford (qv) in 
1694 with which title this peerage then
merged until its extinction in 1762
14 Oct 1642 B 1 Richard Newport 7 May 1587 8 Feb 1651 63
Created Baron Newport of High Ercall
14 Oct 1642
8 Feb 1651 2 Francis Newport 23 Feb 1620 19 Sep 1708 88
11 Mar 1675 V 1 Created Viscount Newport of Bradford
11 Mar 1675 (qv)
29 Nov 1743 B[I] 1 Robert Jocelyn c 1688 3 Dec 1756
Created Baron Newport 29 Nov 1743 
and Viscount Jocelyn 6 Dec 1755
See "Jocelyn"
12 Jan 1822 V[I] 1 Francis Needham,12th Viscount Kilmorey 5 Apr 1748 21 Nov 1832 84
Created Viscount Newry and Morne and
Earl of Kilmorey 12 Jan 1822
See "Kilmorey"
27 Aug 1892 B 1 William John Legh 19 Dec 1828 15 Dec 1898 69
Created Baron Newton 27 Aug 1892
MP for Lancashire South 1859-1865 and
Cheshire East 1868-1885
15 Dec 1898 2 Thomas Wodehouse Legh 18 Mar 1857 21 Mar 1942 85
MP for Newton 1886-1898. Paymaster
General 1915-1916.  PC 1915
21 Mar 1942 3 Richard William Davenport Legh 18 Nov 1888 11 Jun 1960 71
11 Jun 1960 4 Peter Richard Legh 6 Apr 1915 16 Jun 1992 77
MP for Petersfield 1951-1960
16 Jun 1992 5 Richard Thomas Legh 11 Jan 1950
31 Oct 1997 B[L] 1 Antony Harold Newton 29 Aug 1937 25 Mar 2012 74
to     Created Baron Newton of Braintree for life
25 Mar 2012 31 Oct 1997
MP for Braintree 1974-1997. Minister of
State,Social Security 1984-1986. Minister
of State,Health 1986-1988. Chancellor of
the Duchy of Lancaster 1988-1989. 
Secretary of State for Social Security
1989-1992. Lord President of the Council
1992-1997.  PC 1988
Peerage extinct on his death
24 Apr 1718 B[I] 1 Sir Richard Child (later Tylney) 5 Feb 1680 Mar 1750 70
Created Baron Newtown and Viscount
Castlemaine 24 Apr 1718  and Earl 
Tylney of Castlemaine 11 Jun 1731
See "Castlemaine"
21 Oct 1715 B[I] 1 Theophilus Butler c 1669 11 Mar 1724
Created Baron of Newtown-Butler
21 Oct 1715
PC [I] by 1711
11 Mar 1724 2 Brinsley Butler 1670 6 Mar 1735 65
He was created Viscount Lanesborough (qv)
in 1728 with which title this peerage then
3 Oct 1994 B[L] 1 Sir Donald James Nicholls 25 Jan 1933 25 Sep 2019 86
to Created Baron Nicholls of Birkenhead for life
25 Sep 2019 3 Oct 1994
Lord Justice of Appeal 1986-1991. Lord of 
Appeal in Ordinary 1994-2007   PC 1986
Peerage extinct on his death
11 Jul 1912 B 1 Sir William Gustavus Nicholson 2 Mar 1845 13 Sep 1918 73
to     Created Baron Nicholson 11 Jul 1912
13 Sep 1918 Field Marshal 1911
Peerage extinct on his death
3 Nov 1997 B[L] 1 Emma Harriet Nicholson 16 Oct 1941
Created Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne
for life 3 Nov 1997
MP for Devon West & Torridge 1987-1997
22 Mar 1994 B[L] 1 Sir David Wigley Nickson 27 Nov 1929
Created Baron Nickson for life 22 Mar 1994
20 Jan 1983 B[L] 1 Olive Mary Wendy Nicol 21 Mar 1923 15 Jan 2018 94
to     Created Baroness Nicol for life 20 Jan 1983
15 Jan 2018 Peerage extinct on her death
17 May 1814 B 1 John Hope,later [1816] 4th Earl of Hopetoun 17 Aug 1765 27 Aug 1823 58
Created Baron Niddry 17 May 1814
See "Hopetoun" with which title this peerage
remains merged
11 Feb 1682 V[S] 1 William Douglas 1637 28 Mar 1695 57
3 Nov 1684 V[S] 1 Created Lord Douglas of Kinmont,
Viscount of Nith,Torthorwald and
Ross,Earl of Drumlanrig and Sanquhar
and Marquess of Queensberry
11 Feb 1682,and Lord Douglas of
Kinmont,Viscount of Nith,Torthorwald 
and Ross,Earl of Drumlanrig and
Sanquhar,Marquess of Dumfriesshire
and Duke of Queensberry 3 Nov 1684
See "Queensberry"
20 Aug 1620 E[S] 1 Robert Maxwell after 1586 May 1646
Created Lord Maxwell,Eskdale and 
Carleill and Earl of Nithsdale 
20 Aug 1620
May 1646 2 Robert Maxwell 1 Sep 1620 5 Oct 1667 47
5 Oct 1667 3 John Maxwell 1677
1677 4 Robert Maxwell Jan 1628 Mar 1696 68
Mar 1696 5 William Maxwell 1676 20 Mar 1744 67
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
Jan 1716 For further information on this peer and his wife
see the note at the foot of this page.
7 Jun 2000 B[L] 1 Dame Sheila Valerie Noakes 23 Jun 1949
Created Baroness Noakes for life 7 Jun 2000
23 Mar 1617 B 1 Edward Noel,later [1629] 2nd Viscount Campden 10 Mar 1643
Created Baron Noel of Ridlington
23 Mar 1617
See "Campden" with which title this peerage
remains merged
16 Aug 1841 B 1 Charles Noel Noel,3rd Baron Barham 2 Oct 1781 10 Jun 1866 84
Created Baron Noel of Ridlington,
Viscount Campden and Earl of
Gainsborough 16 Aug 1841
See "Gainsborough"
3 Feb 1681 E 1 Edward Noel,4th Viscount Campden 27 Jan 1641 8 Apr 1689 48
Created Baron Noel of Tichfield 
3 Feb 1681 and Earl of Gainsborough
1 Dec 1682
See "Gainsborough"
22 Jul 1977 B[L] 1 Philip John Noel-Baker 1 Nov 1889 8 Oct 1982 92
to     Created Baron Noel-Baker for life 22 Jul 1977
8 Oct 1982 MP for Coventry 1929-1931, Derby 1936-
1950 and Derby South 1950-1970. Minister
of State 1945-1946. Secretary of State for
Air 1946-1947. Secretary of State for
Commonwealth Relations 1947-1950.
Minister of Fuel and Power 1950-1951. 
PC 1945  Nobel Peace Prize 1959
Peerage extinct on his death
17 Jun 1930 B 1 Noel Edward Noel-Buxton 9 Jan 1869 12 Sep 1948 79
Created Baron Noel-Buxton 17 Jun 1930
MP for Whitby 1905-1906 and Norfolk
North 1910-1918 and 1922-1930. Minister
of Agriculture 1924 and 1929-1930. PC 1924
12 Sep 1948 2 Rufus Alexander Buxton 15 Jan 1917 14 Jul 1980 63
14 Jul 1980 3 Martin Connal Noel-Buxton 8 Dec 1940 1 Dec 2013 72
1 Dec 2013 4 Charles Connal Noel-Buxton 17 Apr 1975
11 Jan 1994 B[L] 1 Sir Michael Patrick Nolan 10 Sep 1928 22 Jan 2007 78
to     Created Baron Nolan for life 11 Jan 1994
22 Jan 2007 Lord Justice of Appeal 1991-1993. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 1994-1998   PC 1991
Peerage extinct on his death
3 Aug 1670 B 1 Barbara Palmer 1641 9 Oct 1709 68
Created Baroness Nonsuch,Countess
of Southampton and Duchess of
Cleveland 3 Aug 1670
See "Cleveland"
27 Jan 2011 B[L] 1 Sir Gulam Kaderbhoy Noon 24 Jan 1936 27 Oct 2015 79
to     Created Baron Noon for life 27 Jan 2011
27 Oct 2015 Peerage extinct on his death
23 Jun 1827 B[I] 1 John Toler 3 Dec 1745 27 Jul 1831 85
E[I] Created Baron Norbury 27 Dec 1800
and Viscount Glandine and Earl of
Norbury 23 Jun 1827
Solicitor General [I] 1789-1798. Attorney
General [I] 1798-1799. Chief Justice of the
Common Pleas [I] 1800-1827.  PC [I] 1798
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerages of 1827,see the note 
at the foot of this page
On the death of the 1st Earl,the barony descended
to his eldest son,but the earldom descended to his
2nd son.
27 Jul 1831 B[I] 2 Daniel Toler c 1780 30 Jan 1832
He had previously succeeded to the barony of
Norwood (qv) in 1822
27 Jul 1831 E[I] 2 Hector John Graham-Toler 27 Jun 1781 3 Jan 1839 57
30 Jan 1832 B[I] 3 He succeeded to the barony of Norbury in 1832
For further information on the death of this
peer,see the note at the foot of this page.
3 Jan 1839 3 Hector John Graham-Toler 17 Sep 1810 26 Dec 1873 63
26 Dec 1873 4 William Brabazon Lindsay Graham-Toler 2 Jul 1862 20 Apr 1943 80
20 Apr 1943 5 Ronald Ian Montagu Graham-Toler 11 Jan 1893 24 May 1955 62
25 May 1955 6 Noel Terence Graham-Toler 1 Jan 1939 11 Sep 2000 61
11 Sep 2000 7 Richard James Graham-Toler 5 Mar 1967
The Nairne peerage claim of 1873-1874
The following report appeared in "The Scotsman" of 8 July 1873:-
'This was a claim by the Dowager Marchioness of Lansdowne to the dignity of Baroness Nairne,
in the peerage of Scotland. The claimant had presented a petition to the Crown to be declared
entitled, and the petition was, according to the usual course, referred to the Committee of
Privileges. In 1681 Charles II granted the dignity of Lord Nairne to Sir Robert Nairne of that Ilk,
a Senator of the College of Justice during his life, and thereafter to Lord Geo. Murray, youngest
son of the Duke [sic - Marquess] of Atholl and Mrs. Margaret Nairne, only daughter of Sir R. 
Nairne, whom failing, to any other of the sons of the said Marquis of Atholl whom she should
happen to marry, and to their heirs allenarly [in a solitary manner] succeeding to the said Robert
Nairne's lands and estates. Robert, the first Lord Nairne, sat in the Parliament of Scotland in 
1681, and died in 1683. Margaret Nairne was second heir to her father. She did not marry Lord
George, but Lord William Murray, son of the Marquis of Atholl, and he sat as Lord Nairne in the
Scottish Parliament. He was afterwards attainted for treason in the rebellion of 1715, but his
sentence was respited, and he was allowed the benefit of an Act for a general and free pardon.
He died in 1726. His wife, Margaret, Lady Nairne, had in 1717 obtained an Act of Parliament to
enable a provision to be made for her and her children out of the forfeited estate during her
husband's life. Her eldest son in due time also was found guilty of treason, but was pardoned,
and obtained an Act in 1737 to remove all disabilities as to inheritance. He was again attainted
for high treason in the rebellion of 1745, and he retired to France and died in 1770. In 1824 a
statute was passed restoring his descendants to the family dignities, and the then heir, William,
was the fifth Lord Nairne, and died at Puddingstone in 1830. His only son died in 1838 [sic - he
died in December 1837] unmarried, and the whole descendants of John, the eldest son of William,
the second Lord Nairne, became extinct. The second son of the second Lord Nairne was
represented by Jean Mercer, who married in 1787 the Hon. George Keith Elphinstone, afterwards
created Baron Keith, in the peerage of Ireland, and her only daughter, Margaret, was the last
representative of the barony of Keith, which became extinct at her death. She had married in
1817the Compte de Flahault, and left only four daughters, the eldest of whom is the Dowager
Marchioness of Lansdowne, the present claimant, who claimed to be entitled, as heir of the
marriage of Margaret Lady Nairne and Lord William Murray, afterwards second Lord Nairne.
'Mr Junner, in the temporary absence of his leader, Mr J. Pearson, for the claimant, stated the
above facts, and was about to call witnesses, when Lord cairns called attention to the 
destination, and asked if it was quite clear that the words of the letters patent, "the heirs
between them," were to be construed in the way suggested by the claimant?
'After the adjournment of the Committee for a few minutes, Mr Pearson appeared, and said that
he had not considered this objection, and was not prepared to argue the question of 
construction at present, and asked leave to call at once one or two witnesses to prove formal
steps in the case, the point being reserved as to title. Mr Lockhart Thomson, Lord Strathnairn,
and other witnesses, were then called and examined as to documents produced, and as to the
deaths of parties in the pedigree. After the formal evidence was given, Lord Redesdale said the
further hearing of the case would be adjourned sine die. Adjourned accordingly.'
The House of Lords eventually decided on the claim a little over a year later, as reported in "The
Scotsman" of 5 August 1874:-
'In this case the Dowager Marchioness of Lansdowne claimed the dignity of Baroness Nairne, in
the peerage of Scotland. This peerage had been conferred in 1681 on Sir Robert Nairne, during his
life, and after his decease on the heirs of the marriage of the only daughter of Sir Robert;
thereafter on any other sons of the Marquis of Athole whom his daughter should marry, and the
heirs between them, and failing the heirs male, on the eldest daughter, &c. The Marchioness of
Lansdowne claimed as the heir female of Robert, second son of the marriage referred to in the
charter, under the limitation to the eldest daughter, &c.
'Mr. Pearson, Q.C., with him Mr. Junner, had concluded his evidence, and now asked their
Lordships to decide the case after hearing the Attorney-General.
'The Lord Advocate, for the Crown, said he had examined the evidence in the case, and was
satisfied as to the descent of the dignity, and in all matters of pedigree, except on one point. An
officer in the French service, one of the persons in the pedigree, had died abroad, and there was
no proof of his dying unmarried. The question might be whether their Lordships were satisfied on
that point.
'Mr Pearson called attention to the evidence bearing on that point, and contended that the fair
result was that the person in question had died unmarried. Lord Cairns said that there was a
question of some nicety involved in this claim with regard to the construction of the destination
in the charter to heirs female. As regards the pedigree, he had never entertained much doubt;
and as to the point suggested of the French officer, considering the lapse of time and the other
details of evidence, he thought the fair result was that the officer died without issue. The point
of difficulty arose as to the construction. If the deed had been an English deed, the matter 
would have been clear. But this must be decided on the Scotch law , and having regard to the
cases of Kinfanns and of Innes Ker, and the institutional writers in the law of Scotland, he was
satisfied that the petitioner was entitled, and had established her claim. He therefore moved
that the Committee should decide the Marchioness of Lansdowne's claim to be made out. The
other Peers concurred. Claim established.'
Robert George Cornelis Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala
The following biography of Lord Napier of Magdala appeared in the September 1957 issue of
the Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
'A wave of patriotic rejoicing swept the British Empire in the spring of 1868 at the news that 
Captain Cameron, Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Court of Ethiopia, and his suite had been 
rescued from their chains in a dungeon deep in the mountain fortress of Magdala. A British force 
had battled over 400 miles of territory, once deemed impassable, in an operation which many 
said "could not be done" to snatch the captives from barbaric King Theodore who then blew out 
his brains. One name stood out from the rest. It was that of General Sir Robert Napier, soon to 
be Field-Marshal Baron Napier of Magdala.  
'Napier won the campaign as an engineer. He drove a road through the "impassable" 400 miles of
hills to bring Theodore to bay. He is remembered just as much for the great roads he built in the
Punjab and the North-west frontier area and for the irrigation canals which meant so much to
India's economy. 
'Robert [George] Cornelis Napier was born at Colombo, Ceylon, on December 6, 1810, to artillery 
Major Robert Napier, described as "just an average soldier." He entered the Bengal Engineers from 
Addiscombe College in 1826 and arrived in India as subaltern two years later. At first he was
employed on irrigation and road building. At 28 he was given the job of laying out the new hill
hill station at Darjeeling.
'Napier was executive engineering officer at the new station of Umballa, when the Sikh Army,
undisciplined since the death of their great leader, Rangit Singh, Lion of the Punjab, crossed
the Sutlej in a major invasion of British India. Napier commanded the engineers at the battle of
Mudki [18 December 1845], and led them in a charge. His horse was shot from under him. At
Ferozeshah [21-22 December 1845] he was again unhorsed, joined the 31st Regiment on foot,
and was severely wounded storming the entrenched Sikh camp. He was in the saddle again
for the march on Lahore and the capitulation of the Sikhs.
'He had hardly settled to his new job as consulting engineer to the Punjab resident, when Dewan
Moolraj. Governor of the Punjab province of Multan, murdered two British commissioners, Mr. 
[Patrick Alexander] Vans Agnew and Lieut. [W.A.] Anderson [20 April 1848]. Britain decided to 
end the Sikh menace once and for all. Napier, now a major, was called to the war council of 
General [William Sampson] Whish [1787-1853]. Though an engineer accustomed to long-term 
sieges, he had the temerity to suggest that Moolraj could be defeated in a lightning attack.
'The veteran generals shrugged the idea aside and determined on a steady war of attrition. It
cost them at Chillianwalla alone 2400 casualties [13 January 1849]. At last Moolraj was forced
back into his fortress of Multan. Napier's siege guns smashed breaches in what was known as the
Bloody Bastion. Napier himself was wounded in an assault on the trenches before Multan. He was
present, however, when a mortar shell blew the main enemy powder magazine sky high and when
the British stormed through the breaches to capture the citadel [22 January 1849].
'The close of the second Sikh war saw Napier embarked on his greatest, lasting work. Britain
annexed the Punjab. Napier was given the job of building roads to open up the great province.
Much of the great trunk road that forms the setting of Kipling's historical novel, "Kim," was built
or strengthened by Napier. He forced his roads through the hostile territory of the North-West
frontier. His road from the plains into the hills of Murree is famous as one of the major engineering
feats of the day. 
'Napier was a brigadier when, in 1857, the whole of India erupted in the great mutiny fostered by
high caste Hindu rulers who resented the suppression under British rule of their age-old 
prerogatives of tyranny and plunder. They circulated rumours among the native sepoy soldiery
that the cartridge bullets issued for their new Lee Enfield rifles were greased with pig's fat, which
was unclean, or bullocks' fat, which was holy, both of which would cause them to lose caste. 
The regiments rose in religious frenzy and slaughtered their white officers. The infamous Nana 
Sahib [1824-disappeared 1857] massacred every white man, woman and child in Cawnpore. In
Lucknow, the garrison of 1150 whites and 700 loyal sepoys held firm in the limited residency area 
against a horde of rebels who held the rest of the town. 
'Brigadier Napier was military secretary and adjutant-general to the force of 2500 that advanced
under Sir James Outram [qv] and Major-General Havelock in a hopeless bid to relieve the Lucknow
garrison. They had to fight their way through a rebel force 60,000 strong to the residency. They 
could not fight their way out. All they could hope for was to hold the besiegers and wait 
doggedly for relief. 
'Napier directed the defence of Lucknow. With his 3500 troops he pushed the rebels further from
the residency area and seized strategic buildings. Six weeks later Sir Colin Campbell [later Baron
Clyde] fought his way through with 4500 men. Napier was severely wounded in crossing an open 
space with Outram and Havelock to greet Campbell. By means of a fake attack which drew the 
rebel force elsewhere, Campbell withdrew the British garrison and civilians from Lucknow which
was left in control of the rebels. 
'Napier planned the campaign that recaptured the vast city. His sappers and gunners breached 
the walls of scores of great buildings which were then taken by storm. Only after 20 days of
murderous street fighting did the British take the final stronghold and hoist their flag once more
over the town. Napier was immediately appointed second-in-command to General Sir Hugh Rose,
who advanced from Bombay with 4000 men to crush the rebellion still raging in central India.
'The main rebel was the young and beautiful Rani [Lakshmibai] of Jhansi [1828-1858], the Joan
of Arc of India, described by the British as "the best man on the side of the enemy." In a whirl-
wind campaign rarely equalled in India, Rose soon had the Rani penned in her fortress of Jhansi,
where she dressed as a soldier and spurred her followers to fanatical heroism. In mid-siege, the
rebel chieftain Tantia Topee [1814-1859], a relative of Nana Sahib, monster of the Cawnpore
massacre, arrived at Jhansi with 20,000 rebels to relive the Rani.
'With a recklessness that success alone justified, Rose split his small force. While 2500 maintained
the siege, he attacked Tantia Topee's 20,000 with a contingent of 1500 infantry, cavalry and
artillery. The enemy fled in disorder, setting fire to the jungle behind them to check pursuit. Two
days later [3 April 1858], Jhansi was carried by assault in scenes of incredible carnage, ending
with the blowing up of the arsenals. The Rani escaped and hurried to rejoin Tantia Topee. Rose
and Napier fought the final battle of the mutiny at Gwalior [17/18 June 1858], where the Rani
was killed by a British cavalryman who slashed her throat with his sabre in the belief that she 
was a man. Tantia Topee escaped with 12,000 men. Napier was given the task of smashing him.
With 700 white troops he brought the fugitive to bay on the Plains of Jaora Alipur. He routed
the enemy forces, captured guns, ammunition and baggage, but still could not seize the elusive
Tantia Topee himself. Finally he persuaded another rebel, Man Singh [Raja of Narwar], to betray
him. Napier took Tantia Topee to Sipri [Shivpuri], where he was tried by court-martial and hanged
[18 April 1859]. With his death, the Indian Mutiny ended.
'For his services in the mutiny, Napier was knighted. He was on active service again in 1859 when
China refused to ratify the treaties that authorised trade with the west. Napier commanded the
second division of the expedition which stormed the Peiho forts, fought its way into Peking, and,
because of the violation of a flag of truce, set fire to the fabulous summer palace. As a result,
Kowloon promontory opposite the island of Hong Kong was ceded to Britain.
'Back in India, Napier was military member of the Council of the Governor-General. For a short 
time he acted as Governor-General on the death of Lord Elgin. With his vast knowledge of road-
making and strategy, he was the obvious man to lead the punitive expedition when Theodore,
barbaric King of Ethiopia, clamped Captain [Charles Duncan] Cameron [d 1870], the British
ambassador [actually Consul] and his suite in chains and immured them in his fortress of Magdala.
Theodore had taken offence because Queen Victoria failed to reply to a letter from him 
suggesting that Britain and Ethiopia should combine to throw the Turks out of North African ports.
'Napier was given carte blanche to draw men and supplies from Britain and India. His extrav-
gance appalled the parsimonious Victorian Government. He suffered under a barrage of defeatism.
Military experts stormed that the expedition was doomed to failure. No force could fight its way
over 400 miles of waterless terrain ridged by mountains 8000 feet high. They pointed out the
ferocious nature of Theodore and his army. Boasting descent from the Queen of Sheba, Theodore
was a tyrant who delighted in soaking selected prisoners in tar, setting them on fire, and rolling
them down a hillside to the horror of Europeans who had been his guests. His warriors were
fanatical in attacking their enemies.
'Napier listened silently to his critics and went steadily ahead with his plans. On January 7, 1868,
he arrived at Annesley Bay, on the Red Sea, with 16,000 fighting men and 12,640 of the 
transport service. It was Napier, the engineer, who won the campaign. As he advanced, there
unwound behind him one of his famous roads. He smashed the Ethiopian army at Aroghee [10
April 1868] and finally penned Theodore in his great mountain fortress of Magdala. By then Napier
had only 3500 fighting troops. The rest were strung out along his great road to protect his
communications from raiding savages.
'Theodore wavered. He sent 1000 cattle and 500 sheep as a sign of friendship, but the gift was
bungled. He then threatened to murder his captives. Napier pressed on grimly with his preparations
for a siege. In desperation Theodore sent the pick of his army down the mountain to smash 
Napier's comparatively small force. The British and Indian troops cut them to ribbons with 
machine-gun and carbine fire. As the remnants fled, King Theodore put a pistol in his mouth and 
blew out his brains [13 April 1868]. Napier rescued the prisoners, destroyed the fortress, and 
retired stolidly along his road to the coast. The expedition that "couldn't be done" had taken just
three months. 
'Though still grumbling at the cost, the British Government made Napier a baron, with the title of
Napier of Magdala. On January 1, 1883, he was promoted field-marshal. He died in London on
January 14, 1890.'
The special remainder to the Barony of Nelson created in 1801
From the "London Gazette" of 1 August 1801 (issue 15393, page 948):-
"The King has been pleased to grant the Dignity of a Baron of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, to the Right Honorable Horatio Viscount Nelson, Kinight of the Most Honorable
Order of the Bath, and Vice-Admiral of the Blue Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet (Duke of Bronti
in Sicily, Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit, and of the Imperial
Order of the Crescent,) and to the Heirs Male of his Body, lawfully begotten, by the Name, Style,
and Title of Baron Nelson, of the Nile, and of Hilborough, in the County of Norfolk; with 
Remainders to Edmund Nelson, Clerk, Rector of Burnham Thorpe, in the said County of Norfolk,
Father of the said Horatio Viscount Nelson, and the Heirs Male of his Body, lawfully begotten; 
and to the Heirs Male lawfully begotten, and to be begotten, severally and successively of
Susanna the Wife of Thomas Bolton, Esq., and Sister of the said Horatio Viscount Nelson; and
in Default of such Issue, to the Heirs Male of Catherine the Wife of George Matcham, Esq.,
another Sister of the said Horatio Viscount Nelson."
The special remainder to the Earldom of Nelson created in 1805
From the "London Gazette" of 5 November 1805 (issue 15859, page 1376):-
"His Majesty has been pleased to grant to the Reverend William Nelson, D.D. now Lord Nelson,
Brother and Heir to the late Lord Viscount Nelson, who, after a Series of transcendant and heroic
Services, fell gloriously on the 21st of October last, in the Moment of brilliant and decisive 
Victory, the Dignity of a Viscount and Earl of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, by
the Names, Styles, and Titles, of Viscount Merton and Earl Nelson, of Trafalgar, and of Merton,
in the County of Surrey, the same to descend to the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten,
and in default thereof, to the Heirs Male successively of Susanne, Wife of Thomas Bolton Esq;
and Catherine, Wife of George Matcham Esq; Sisters of the late Lord Viscount Nelson."
Cyril Louis Norton Newall, 1st Baron Newall
Newall was a recipient of the Albert Medal for Lifesaving, an award which has since been 
replaced by the George Cross, the highest gallantry award for civilians. The citation for Newall's
Albert Medal was published in the London Gazette on 19 May 1916 [issue 29588, page 4970]
and reads:-
"On the 3rd of January, 1916, at about 3 p.m., a fire broke out inside a large bomb store 
belonging to the Royal Flying Corps, which contained nearly 2,000 high explosive bombs, some
of which had very large charges, and a number of incendiary bombs which were burning freely.
Major Newall at once took all necessary precautions, and the, assisted by Air Mechanic Simms, 
poured water into the shed through a hole made by the flames. He sent for the key of the
store, and with Corporal Hearne, Harwood and Simms entered the building and succeeded in
putting out the flames. The wooden cases containing the bombs were burnt, and some of them
were charred to a cinder."
Maria Stella Petronilla, 2nd wife of the 1st Baron Newborough
Thomas Wynn, 1st Baron Newborough, married as his first wife Lady Catherine Perceval,
daughter of the 2nd Earl of Egmont. She died in June 1782. In October 1786, he again
married, this time to a 13-year-old girl named Maria Stella Petronilla Chiappini, daughter of
an innkeeper and gaoler of Modligliana in Italy.
The following article appeared as the first instalment of a series entitled "The Romance of
the Coronet" by W.W. Hutchings, which was published in the New Zealand 'Star' during 1905.
As far as I can find, the series was never published in book form.
'In, or just before, the year 1800, the English colony at Florence included the aged Lord
Newborough, who was elevated to the Irish peerage under this title some four-and-twenty 
years before, having until then been known among men as Sir Thomas Wynn, Bart. In his
visit to the opera he was much struck with the grace and beauty of a ballerina of tender
years, Maria Stella Petronilla Chiappini by name. Making her acquaintance, he became 
desperately enamoured of her. He believed he saw in her, besides rare charms of person, a
sweetness of nature and a goodness of heart not always allied with beauty, and he was not
long in determining to make her his wife. Accordingly, he led her to the altar, and soon
afterwards brought her home and introduced her to the world as Lady Newborough. [The
inference is that they were married around 1800, but this actually occurred in 1786].
'In spite of the disparity between them in point of age, Lord and Lady Newborough lived
together very happily. With familiarity her charms lost nothing of the spell which they had
cast over him, and she on her side set high store upon the affection he bore her, and was
grateful to him for having raised her to a station so far above her own. He also had the
immense gratification of knowing that at his death his title and estates would devolve upon
his own son. The only son of his first wife, the Lady Catherine Perceval, daughter of the Earl
of Egmont, had died without issue in 1800, and it is easy to understand with what delight he
received from the second Lady Newborough the gift of two sons [who would later become the
second and third barons], the elder born in 1802, the younger in the following year.
'When Lord Newborough died, in 1807, his widow, for whom he had not failed to make 
adequate provision, went back to the sunny land of her birth. One of her first concerns was to
visit her parents, who were of lowly station, her father having been the gaoler of a small
country town, though now they were living in something more than comfort. But she was
discouraged by the frigid but respectful reception she got from them all except her father; 
and, strangely enough, she found it almost impossible to have any intimate speech with him, 
owing to interruptions from other members of the family, and especially from her mother and 
her eldest brother. At first puzzled, she presently became irritated by the singular change that
had come over them, and leaving them, she began a course of visits to different parts of the 
'A few years afterwards her father, Chiappini, was seized with mortal illness, and died soon
after she reached his side, leaving her with the impression that he had something upon his
mind which he was unable to divulge. A little later she received a packet in her late father's
hand-writing, penned just before he died, in the fear that he would have no opportunity of
making the communication by word of mouth; and at once, as by a flash, all that had 
perplexed and mortified her in the attitude towards her of her relatives was made plain. "My
daughter you are not," it told her; "and the denial of a relationship which your kindness has
made me love is the bitter portion of this confession. But I make it, though it covers me with
shame, on account of the fraud of my early life, that it may be beneficial to you……When Lord
Newborough married you, he was little aware that you were of a rank equal, or perhaps
superior, to his own, and it was to me in some measure a salve to my conscience when you
became a great English lady; for I had, even then, begun deeply to repent of the evil injustice
towards you to which I was a party."
'The dying man then related how, at the time his wife was about to make an addition to their
family, a great French nobleman brought his wife, in the same condition, to the little town. The
stranger, taking Chiappini into his confidence, told him that it was of the utmost importance 
that he should have an heir, and bribed him to consent to an exchange of the children should 
his own child be a girl and his (Chiappini's) a boy. The nobleman assured him that the boy 
would be well provided for, and went so far as to say that he would fill one of the highest 
places in Europe.
'The contingency contemplated by the stranger happened, and the exchange was effected.
The promises he had made were more than fulfilled. "For the course of seven years," the
writer continued, "large sums of money were remitted to me, with the strictest injunction as
to secrecy, and terrible threats were held out to me in the event of my divulging the strange
story. I was enjoined, above all, to keep the matter secret from you when you grew up. My
wife and my eldest son alone were admitted to a full knowledge of the whole transaction. And
this will account for their anxiety to prevent any intercourse between us, for they well knew
that I had long ago repented of the injury that I had done you, and that I was anxious to
make whatever reparation to you was in my power." After expressions of penitence, the letter
ended by giving the name of the town where the children were born, and also the name of 
the nobleman to whom the place belonged, and of his steward, both of whom were acquainted
with the name of the French nobleman who was really Lady Newborough's father.
'Lady Newborough at once made her way thither, and carefully concealing the object of her
inquiries, succeeded as the result of many diplomatic conversations in ascertaining that the
French nobleman who had had communication with the Chiappinis was the Comte de Joinville.
Then crossing the frontier into France she journeyed to Joinville, and learned that the lord of
this place, and the holder of the title, was none other than the Duke of Orleans.
'Pursuing her investigations further, she presently arrived in Paris, where Louis the  Eighteenth
was seated on the throne. [Louis XVIII was King of France 1814-1824]. She now determined
upon a ruse. Putting up at one of the first hotels in the capital she had an advertisement
inserted in the chief newspapers. "If the heir of the Comte de Joinville," it ran, "who travelled
and resided in Italy in the year 1773 will call at the Hotel de ---, rue ---, he will hear of
something greatly to his advantage."
'The bait was speedily taken. An aged ecclesiastic called and at once announced himself to be
the Abbe So-and-so, the agent of that Duke of Orleans who was presently to come to throne
as Louis Philippe. "But how is his Highness interested in the advertisement?" asked the lady.
"Because his father, the late Duke," was the reply, "was also Comte de Joinville and used to
travel under that title. Moreover he was travelling in Italy in the year 1773, before the birth
of the present Duke."  Then the Abbe inquired, "Is it a large bequest that his Highness is about
to receive?" And thus was explained the facility with which Louis Philippe had fallen into the
trap. Lady Newborough gently undeceived him: there was no question, she said, of a bequest
or an inheritance, she was merely making inquiries concerning a birth connected with the late
Duke's journey into Italy. The Abbe now saw the great blunder he had made, and with 
exaggerated expressions of politeness hastened to withdraw.
'In Lady Newborough's mind no doubt was now left that she was the eldest child of the late
Duke of Orleans, and that the present Duke, the future King of France, was a humbly-born
changeling. All the late Duke's children born after that Italian journey were by this time dead.
She, therefore, in her own conviction, was not merely the heiress of the immense wealth now
enjoyed by the Duke of Orleans, but, next to the Duchess d'Angouleme, was the first of the
French princesses of the blood.
'That great authority on the peerage, Sir Bernard Burke, who tells this strange story at
considerable length in his "Family Romance," is careful not to commit himself to an endorsement
of the claims which Lady Newborough lost no opportunity of making, both in private and by
means of a little volume which presented her case to the public. ["The Memoirs of Maria Stella
Lady Newborough" originally published in French. An English translation was published by 
Eveleigh Nash, London, 1914]. The weak link in the chain has no doubt already been perceived
by my readers - that a recently married and youthful couple such as the Duke of Orleans and
his wife were when they travelled in Italy should so completely have abandoned the hope of
having a son born to them as to be ready to make the son of an Italian turnkey their heir! It
must, however, be said that there may have been some reason connected with politics or with
family affairs which made it imperative, or at any rate most desirable, that the Duke should 
have an heir in the year 1773. It is certainly curious that Louis Philippe should have had in him
so much of the bourgeois and so little of the king. Accept Lady Newborough's theory, and that
circumstance is fully explained.
'Two statements which appear in the volume written by Lady Newborough in support of her 
claim may be repeated here, for what they are worth. One is that when Louis Philippe was
baptised his weight was that of a child six months old, which would have been about his age
had he been born in Italy during the tour and secretly conveyed to Paris. The other statement
is that when Lady Newborough's son was standing before a picture of Louis Philippe the boy,
struck with the resemblance to old Chiappini, exclaimed, "O mamma, here is a picture of grand
'To sum up, it would be improper to say more than that Lady Newborough's claim deserved the
careful investigation which it never received. Three years after her first husband's death she
had married the Baron von Ungarn-Sternberg, with whom, however, she was not happy, and
who lent her no aid in the prosecution of her claim. In her choice of advisers she was not
fortunate, and it is melancholy to have to wind up our story of this romance within a romance
by recording that she dissipated her fortune without advancing the cause to which, from the
moment that she became convinced of her royal birth until the hour of her death, all her 
energies were devoted.'
For further reading on this subject, I recommend "The Mystery of Maria Stella, Lady 
Newborough" by Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, 3rd baronet, published by Edward Arnold, London,
Robert Charles Michael Vaughan Wynn, 7th Baron Newborough
When the 7th Baron Newborough died in 1998, he left instructions that he was to be
cremated and his ashes blown from a cannon which he kept at the family home in Wales.
Lord Newborough was obviously very fond of his cannon, notwithstanding that it had caused
him to appear in court some years earlier. The following article appeared in 'The Times' on
16 January 1976:-
"After an all-day hearing yesterday, Caernarfon magistrates found Lord Newborough, aged 
58, who had escaped from Colditz, guilty of criminal damage to a yacht by firing a cannon
from his home, Belan Fort on the Menai Straits, on August 24. Damage to the yacht was
estimated at £150.
"He was fined £25 and ordered to pay £79.25 in costs and compensation.
"Mr. Richard Ellis Davies, for the prosecution, told the court: 'It is not suggested that there
was a deliberate intention to cause damage or to destroy property but Lord Newborough was
reckless in firing the cannon.'
"The yachtsman involved, Mr. John Raymond Williams, a chartered accountant, of Glanymor
Road, Penrhyn Bay, told the court that he was sailing his yacht on the Menai Straits near the
fort. The spinnaker sail was up and he noticed some people on the battlements of the fort. He
added: 'There was a loud explosion and a cloud of smoke. Later, when I had pulled the sail
down, I noticed there were five holes at the top.'
"Mr. Geoffrey William Higson, a chemist, of Vicarage Field, Ruabon, Clwyd, said he had been on
the beach with his family at Abermenai on the Anglesey side of the strait. 'We were walking 
along the beach when there came a very loud bang and we heard the noise of a missile. 
Something struck the ground some 12ft or 15ft ahead of us, scattering the pebbles. I was 
scared and reported the matter to the police.'
"Mr. Hugh Jones, of Wexham Street, Beaumaris, who was also on the beach, said he heard a 
loud bang and later found a cannonball. 'I picked it up but it was hot There were quite a lot of
people on the beach.'
"Lord Newborough, a land-owner, denied in evidence that he told the police that he himself 
had fired the cannon. He had been given instructions on how to fire them 15 years ago and 
they were fired only on special occasions such as the new year, an investiture or birthdays 
of note.
"On August 24, he continued, there were guests at the fort, a party of young people and a 
party of old. 'There was a birthday of some note on that day. Part of the amusement was to 
load the cannon so they could see how it is done. I had no intention of putting a cannonball in
with the string balls, and in fact I did not.'
"Asked by Mr. Martin Thomas, for the defence, if it would be easy to load a ball into the
cannon, Lord Newborough replied: 'All one would have to do is to pick one up, go to the 
muzzle and roll it down the barrel. I have never fired the cannon without making sure 
everything was clear.' "
The pretenders to the Earldom of Newburgh and its estates
Between 1827 and 1852 the Earldom of Newburgh was wrongly assumed by members of the Eyre
family, following which, between 1873 and 1904 the right to the Earldom of Newburgh and the 
estate at Hassop Hall, Derbyshire, were contested by at least two other claimants, both of whom
seemed to rely on their descent from the Eyre family to support their claims. The first claimant's
story was outlined in the "Derbyshire Daily Telegraph" on 12 August 1904:-
'The story of the death of an earl's son in a common lodging-house in Blackfriars-road, London,
was told at the inquest on Thursday on the Hon. Arthur Francis Colclough.
'His sister said she last saw him alive in September in Manchester. He was not then in robust 
health. The Coroner: Is it a fact that he was the son of an earl? Witness: Yes, his father was
the ninth Earl of Newburgh.
'The deputy at the lodging house said deceased had not been ill, excepting through drink. He 
had been drinking heavily during the last week; in fact, he was drunk every day. He used to go
out every morning about four o'clock awaiting the opening of the public-house. The Coroner: Did
you know where he got the money from? - No.
'Deceased went to bed as usual on Sunday night, and the following morning was discovered dead
in bed. The cause of death was syncope from pneumonia, accelerated by alcoholic excesses.
'The above claim is not supported by the authorities. The existing Earl of Newburgh is the 8th,
and not the 9th.
'A contemporary states that it is the opinion of the Heralds' College that the deceased probably
traced his descent in some way through the Eyres, who, during the absence of the rightful heirs
on the Continent, long continued to claim the Newburgh earldom. When the second earl died his
honours were inherited by his daughter, who was twice married. Her second husband was that 
Earl of Derwentwater who was executed on Tower Hill foe the Jacobite rising of 1745. The
Countess of Derwentwater's sons succeeded to the Earldom of Newburgh, and when the male line 
became extinct, the rightful heir was the daughter of the countess's only daughter by her first
marriage. This lady had married Prince Benedict Giustiniani of the Roman States, from whom the
present earl is descended. But the countess's younger daughter, by her second marriage, had
married Francis Eyre, of Wirksworth, a member of an old Catholic Derbyshire family. Her son, 
Francis Eyre, of Hassop, on the failure of the male line, erroneously assumed the title of Earl of
Newburgh. This was in 1814. The rightful heir, Prince Vincent Giustiniani, who was living in Italy,
took no steps to claim the Scottish earldom, and the son and grandson of Francis Eyre continued
to call themselves Earls of Newburgh, although they took no proceedings to establish it. In 1858
the next of the Italian line came forward, and did establish her claim, and the present peer is an
earl of Scotland, a marquis, and a prince of the Papal States, and a duke and count of Naples.
He has been naturalised by Act of Parliament, for he was legally a foreigner. Since the success-
ion has been settled the claim of the Eyre family has withered away, and it is probable that the
dead man is descended from one of its members.'
In 1873 another claimant, John Gladwin Colclough, attempted to seize the estate by forcing an
entry to the Hall, as referred to in the [edited] report in the "Sheffield and Rotherham 
Independent" of 14 June 1884:-
'Another claimant to the Hassop Hall estates has arisen in the person of Mr Gladwin Cloves Cave.
The hall, an historic residence, was originally the property of the Eyres. In August 1873, a case
that excited great interest was heard before the Bakewell [a small town and parish in the Derby-
shire Dales] magistrates, and it arose out of a claim by Mr. John Gladwin Colclough to the Hassop
estates. The same claimant was before the Bakewell bench on March 6, 1874, charged with
trespass and forcible entry. The defendant, with several others to aid him, had tried [without
success] for several days to get forcible possession of the estates…….'
The claimant Cave was nothing if not persistent. His claims were quashed in the High Court in 
April 1887, when Mr. Justice Kekewich said of him "The case must fail. Mr. Cave is a man of 
education…………..the manner in which he has conducted the case is such as shows he has
purposely neglected some lines of examination, and followed others on matters almost altogether
irrelevant………I therefore grant a injunction to restrain trespass." For further information, see the
note beneath.
Cave re-emerged in 1904, resulting in the following [edited] report which appeared in the 
"Sheffield Daily Telegraph" of 14 November 1904:-
'To give the pith of a long story, we may state that the present owner of Hassop Hall and estate
is Mr. Charles Stephen Leslie, of Balquhain, Aberdeenshire, and Slindon House, Sussex, only son
of the late Colonel Charles Leslie by his first wife. Mr. C.S. Leslie inherited Hassop from 
his father, Colonel Leslie, and Colonel Leslie (who died in 1870) came into possession of the
Hassop estate on the death of his second wife Dorothy, née Eyre in 1853. This Dorothy Leslie
called herself, or was called, Countess of Newburgh, just as her two brothers , Francis and 
Thomas, who preceded her in the ownership of Hassop Hall and estate, called themselves Earls
of Newburgh. She succeeded Francis, who died in 1852, not by will, but as sole heir-at-law.
'Mr. Cave's story is that Dorothy Eyre ought not to have succeeded to the property in 1852, on
the death of her brother Francis, since her brother Thomas had made a settlement in 1828,
not in her favour, but in favour of the children of his aunts on his mother's side. No evidence of
any value has ever been produced in support of this story, At the trial in 1887, which in form was
an action by Colonel Leslie's trustees to restrain Mr. Cave from trespass, but which was in fact a 
trial of Mr. Cave's claim, the only witness for Mr. Cave's story was a Baslow shoemaker, who said
that 38 years before, i.e. in 1849, when he was a boy, he remembered being taken into Hassop
Hall, and into Francis Eyre's bedroom, where two documents were drawn forth from behind a
sliding panel of the wainscot, one of which was labelled as being a "Deed of Settlement in favour
of Aunty Elizabeth Gladwin, granted by Thomas Earl of Newburgh," and the second endorsed as
"Deed of Settlement in favour of Elizabeth Gladwin, granted by Francis Earl of Newburgh. The
witness said he did not see what was inside the "deeds," but they were dated about 1828. In
1828 Francis Eyre was not even self-styled Earl of Newburgh, and was not in possession of the
Hassop Hall estate, to which he only succeeded in 1833. Of course, the evidence did not impress
the Court. Mr. Justice Kekewich said, "From the extraordinary nature of this evidence, and the
manner in which the witness has answered some test questions, I cannot give any weight to it,
and therefore the case (of Mr. Cave) must fail."
'As to the Earldom story, we have only to state that it stands entirely apart from the question
of the rightful ownership of the Hassop Hall estate. It is only an accident of the case, as it were,
that the Eyre family, the immemorial owners of that estate, should have set up a claim to the
Scotch earldom of Newburgh. Mr. Cave could not recover that from the Leslies, for they have not
got it. The assumption of the title by Thomas Eyre and Francis Eyre between 1827 and 1852 was
entirely unwarranted. The Eyre family had some connection with the family which possessed the 
earldom. When, in 1814, the fifth earl, Anthony James, died without issue, he was succeeded by
an Italian relative, Vincent, Prince Giustiniani of the Roman States, who was grandson of a former
Countess of Newburgh. This earl, the sixth since the creation of the peerage in 1660, never took
proceedings to establish his claim. He died in 1826, and was succeeded by his only daughter, who
likewise never claimed the peerage for many years. It was during this period (1826-1852), that 
the Eyres assumed the title, but without any foundation, for in 1857 Maria Bandini Giustiniani was
naturalised in Great Britain, and her claim to the peerage, as Countess of Newburgh in her own
right, was allowed in 1858. She died in 1877, and was succeeded by her son as eighth earl.
'All the facts of the above article are ascertainable without trouble from public sources by any
person anxious to test Mr. Cave's story of a claim to the Hassop Hall estates and "a Derbyshire
Charles Giustiniani-Bandini, 9th Earl of Newburgh
The following report appeared in the Adelaide 'Register' of 22 August 1923:-
'Prince and Princess Giustiniani-Bandini, who are the Earl and Countess of Newburgh in the
Scottish Peerage, were attacked and robbed in their mansion in the centre of Rome, on the night
of July 6, the burglars first chloroforming them and then ransacking the Prince's safe of valuables
and cash worth 2,000,000 lire (£18,500 at present exchange).
'The Prince - who is head of an ancient house well-known in Italian history for its soldiers and
statesmen - and the Princess were asleep when both were awakened by pressure on their nostrils
of cotton-wool buds soaked with chloroform held by two men, barefooted and wearing black 
'The Prince and Princess cried out and struggled, when the masks fell from their assailants' faces,
revealing them, it is alleged, as the Prince's Brazilian valet and his chauffeur.
'The Prince and his wife, who are 61 and 55 respectively, continued to struggle. The Prince, who
is still vigorous, was overpowered only when his wife had succumbed to the anaesthetic. Both
the assailants were then free to deal with him.
'When he recovered his senses he found that all the doors of the room had been locked and the
electric light, bell, and telephone wires cut. He managed to wake some of the servants, who 
broke in the door. A rapid survey of the house revealed that the thieves had taken the keys of
the Prince's safe, whence they had removed several of the family heirlooms and other jewellery.
'Among their loot was a diamond and ruby diadem which the family received as a gift from Queen
Hortense, Napoleon Bonaparte's step-daughter [wife of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland 1806-
1810 and mother of Napoleon III, Emperor of France 1852-1870], and also the famous Giustiniani-
Bandini necklace of pearls.
'In the fight with the two men the Prince sustained a fractured left arm, and other injuries.'
The special remainder to the Dukedom of Newcastle under Lyne created in 1756
From the "London Gazette" of 9 November 1756 (issue 9634, page 2):-
'The King has been pleased to grant unto his Grace Thomas Holles, Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne,
the Dignity of a Duke of the Kingdom of Great Britain, by the Name, Stilke, and Title of Duke of
Newcastle under Lyne, in the County of Stafford; to hold and enjoy the said Dignity, to him, 
and his Heirs Male, and in Default of such Issue, to the Right Honourable Henry Earl of Lincoln,
and his Heirs Male, by Catherine his present wife.'
William Maxwell, 5th Earl of Nithsdale
Nithsdale certainly chose wisely when he married Winifred Herbert, daughter of the first
Marquess of Powis, in 1699 since she was responsible for saving his life.
The Earl was a strong supporter of the Stuart cause. In 1715, he accompanied the Earl of
Derwentwater at the head of a force ordered to march on London from the north of England,
but they were forced to barricade themselves in at Preston and finally had to surrender. 
Nithsdale and Derwentwater were tried for high treason in London and condemned to death.
When the news of her husband's impending execution reached Winifred at their home at
Terregles in Peeblesshire, she immediately set off for London, accompanied only by her
maid, Evans. She rode to Newcastle on horseback, proceeded to York by stage coach and
completed the journey, again on horseback, through snowbound roads. In London, she found
lodging with a Mrs Mills of Drury Lane while she explored the possibilities of rescuing her
husband, and at once began to importune officials, members of the Commons and Lords and
other influential people to secure a reprieve for her condemned husband. Eventually, she
presented a petition to King George I himself. In order to do so, she lay in wait for him and,
when he appeared, she stepped forward from her hiding place and threw herself at his feet,
at the same time thrusting the petition into his hands. George, who scarcely spoke a word
of English, much less being able to read English, threw the petition on the floor and continued
on, and for a few yards he dragged Winifred along the carpet on her chest as she clutched him
around the knees before he was able to wrestle himself free.
In February 1716, the matter was raised in the House of Commons where Sir Richard Steele
made such a passionate speech on Winifred's behalf that Walpole, the leader of the Whigs,
became so concerned at the wave of sympathy that swept through the House that he gagged
the debate by moving a week's adjournment, knowing that Nithsdale was due to be executed
two days later. The reaction of the House of Lords was even more in her favour. Her petition 
was read and the Lords decided to recommend that mercy be extended to all of the Jacobite
leaders. The result was that George reprieved three of the prisoners - the Earl of Carnwath
and the Lords Nairne and Widdrington - but he reaffirmed the death sentences on the Earls
of Derwentwater and Nithsdale and on Viscount Kenmure.
Having thus exhausted all avenues by which she might hope to gain a reprieve, Winifred 
to attempt the rescue of her husband from the Tower. It was a seemingly hopeless project,
but she had the help of her landlady, Mrs Mills, her maid, Evans and her friend Mrs Morgan. 
In the week before the due date of the execution, Winifred had been allowed to visit her
husband without hindrance and in the course of such visits she had won the sympathy of
many of the gaolers. On the evening of the day preceding the allotted time of the execution
all four ladies visited the Tower. 
The prisoner was only allowed two visitors at a time and the Countess took Mrs Morgan in 
first, with a cloak of Mrs Mills', a wig and cosmetics with which to disguise the Earl as a 
woman. That done, the Countess accompanied Mrs Morgan out and Mrs Mills in, talking
excitedly all the time and drawing the guard's attention to Mrs Mills, who was pregnant at
the time and, as a consequence, was of much the same build as the Earl. She then escorted
Mrs Mills out of the Tower again and returned to her husband alone.
After allowing a suitable time to allow the guards to rotate, she bravely escorted her husband
out dressed as Mrs Mills with his face buried in a handkerchief as though silently weeping. 
Once outside, the loyal Evans took the Earl to his hiding place. The Countess now returned 
once again to the now empty cell, where she kept up a pretended conversation with her
husband in a loud voice so that the guards might hear her. When she judged that sufficient 
time had passed to see the Earl safe in his hiding place, she left the cell, slammed the door 
and pushed the cord that worked the latch through a hole to the inside, so that the guards
would have to break down the door to gain access to the cell and find it empty. She then 
calmly made her way out of the Tower and returned to her lodgings.
After hiding in the Venetian Embassy, the Earl made his way to Dover, secured passage in a
boat and reached the safety of France. The Countess elected to stay behind in order to
secure the family estates - if she had fled, there is little doubt that the estates would have 
been forfeited. Accompanied again by Evans, she rode all the way back to Terregles where she
dug up certain documents and valuables which she had buried before travelling to London in
the first place. Having recovered these items, she returned to London, where she discovered
that a warrant had been issued for her arrest. After remaining in hiding for a fortnight, she was
smuggled across to France where she rejoined her husband and their two children whom she
had already sent to France from Scotland.
After living for a period at Avignon, the family moved to Rome where the Earl died in 1744,
followed by his devoted wife in 1749. On her death her remains were brought back to England
and buried at Arundel.
The special remainder to the Viscountcy of Glandawe and the Earldom of Norbury created
in 1827
From the "London Gazette" of 13 July 1827 (issue 18378, page 1511):-
"By letters patent under the Great Seal of Ireland, His Majesty has been pleased to grant to John
Baron Norbury, the dignities of Viscount and Earl of this part of His Majesty's United Kingdom 
called Ireland, by the names, styles, and titles of Viscount Glandine, of Glandine, in the King's
county, and Earl of Norbury, in the county of Tipperary, with remainder to Hector John Graham
Toler, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten."
Hector John Graham Toler was the Earl's second son, the eldest son being passed over because 
he was "of unsound mind."
John Toler, 1st Earl of Norbury
Norbury, who was described as being Ireland's answer to Judge Jeffreys, was known as 
'Puffendorf' from his habit of inflating his cheeks while speaking. A contemporary commented
that he was 'fat, with small grey cunning eyes, which sparkled with good humour, especially
when he has passing sentence of death.'
He came from a poor family in Tipperary and, in later life, boasted that he had started his
legal career with £50 and a pair of hair-trigger duelling pistols. Although he knew little of the
law, he 'breathed such a turbulent spirit of domination' that in 1789 he was appointed
Solicitor General for Ireland, and Attorney General for Ireland in 1798. Notwithstanding the
protests of the Earl of Clare, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, he was in 1800 appointed as Chief
Justice of the Common Pleas.
He presided over this Court in a less than professional manner. He would waddle into court
and place a few of his friends beside him on the bench. One of his regular companions in the
court was a madman named Toby McCormick, who attended under the delusion that he and
Norbury had exchanged identities. As soon as the charges were read out, McCormick would
shout 'Find for the plaintiff!' When it came time for sentencing, Norbury often made long
rambling speeches; a typical speech was described as 'a wild harangue in which neither the
law, method or argument could be discovered. It generally consisted of narratives connected
with the history of his early life.' Once, when the distinguished advocate John Philpot Curran
rose to speak on behalf of a client, a donkey brayed outside the courthouse window. 'One at
a time, please, Mr Curran', Norbury told him.
Norbury's only known act of clemency was to free a murderer whose guilt was obvious. When
the judge recommended to the jury that the prisoner be acquitted, the crown prosecutor
reminded the judge that the evidence left no doubt as to the prisoner's guilt, and Norbury,
visibly annoyed said 'I realise that, but I hanged six innocent men at the Tipperary Assizes
so, to square matters, I'll let this fellow off.'
Once, when dining in company with John Philpot Curran, who was carving some beef, Norbury
inquired, 'Is that beef hung, Mr Curran?', to which Curran replied, 'Not yet My Lord, you have
not tried it.'
As he grew older, Norbury's reputation began to suffer as a result of his growing tendency to
fall asleep in court. On one occasion, Norbury was trying a prisoner for horse-stealing, then
a capital offence, when he fell fast asleep. On awakening, he proceeded to pass sentence of
death, but was interrupted by the prisoner who pointed out that the jury had acquitted him
while Norbury had been asleep. As a result of such incidents, various attempts were made to
remove him from the bench, including a petition made by Daniel O'Connell in 1825, which 
pointed out that Norbury had slept throughout an important murder trial. These attempts
proved to be unsuccessful and Norbury eventually retired in 1827, when he was rewarded
with an earldom. At his funeral, while the coffin was being lowered by ropes into the grave,
a voice was heard from the crowd, 'Give him plenty of rope, boys. He was never sparing of 
it to others.'
Hector John Graham-Toler, 2nd Earl of Norbury
The 2nd Earl of Norbury was assassinated in January 1839. The following [edited] account of 
his murder appeared in "The Times" of 10 January 1839:-
'At an inquisition taken at Durrow Abbey, in the King's County, on the 4th day of January, 
1839, on the body of the Right Hon. Hector John, Earl of Norbury, then and there lying dead, 
………..the following is the verdict returned on the said inquest: - "That the jury do…..say and
present, that on the 1st day of January, 1839, the said Right Hon. Hector John, Earl of 
Norbury, was feloniously killed and murdered at Durrow by some person to the jurors unknown
firing a certain pistol or gun loaded with powder and leaden balls against the body of the Earl,
and thereby inflicting certain wounds in and upon the breast and lungs of the Earl, of which
wounds the Earl languished from the 1st January until the 3rd of January, 1839, when the Earl
died at Durrow of the wounds….."
'The following is the evidence taken by the Coroner:-
'Adam Saunderson, the steward, examined - I reside in Durrow Abbey, and fill the position of
land steward and manager to the late Lord Norbury. I came into his employment in February,
1838. I was with his Lordship on the 1st of January, the day on which he was murdered……
I came with his Lordship from the Tullamore-lodge to the church by the usual road….we then
turned up by the plantation on the left-hand side, to mark some trees for cutting. It was then
between 3 and 4 o'clock. We proceeded about half a mile through the plantation, and then
turned round and were coming back the same way, until we came to the spot where the shot
was fired. I was then about nine feet behind his Lordship, who was at the moment giving
directions about the trees which were to be cut down first. I was with my back to the hedge,
looking at the trees, about which his Lordship was giving the directions, when I heard a shot,
and upon turning round, I saw his Lordship's left side was to the hedge, and upon my turning
round, his Lordship said, "Saunderson, I'm shot." I looked towards the place where the shot
was fired, and saw a man's head and shoulders through the hedge, and he running along the 
gripe up towards the north part of the plantation. I ran about 20 yards after the man and was
about to break through the hedge out of the plantation, when his Lordship called me twice or 
three times. I looked back and saw him staggering. I ran towards him, and caught him in my
arms and prevented him from falling…..
Saunderson's evidence goes on to relate how he attempted to carry the Earl to the Abbey but
was unable to do so, how he sought help and the eventual transfer of the wounded Earl to his
house, where the Earl lingered until he died two days later.
Burke's Peerage, under the entry for the 2nd Earl, states that "he was shot dead by his 
butler," but I have been unable to discover any further information which supports such a
statement. In the five years following the Earl's death, contemporary newspapers report a 
number of separate arrests and trials, but nothing ever came of them. As late as 1858, 
newspaper reports continue to refer to the Earl's murder as being unsolved.
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