Last updated 01/05/2020
     Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
19 Jun 1999 V 1 HRH Prince Edward Antony Richard Louis 10 Mar 1964
Created Viscount Severn and Earl of 
Wessex 19 Jun 1999
See "Wessex"
10 Jan 1996 B[L] 1 John Buttifant Sewel 15 Jan 1946
Created Baron Sewel for life 10 Jan 1996
16 Feb 1547 B 1 Thomas Seymour c 1508 28 Mar 1549
to     Created Baron Seymour of Sudeley
28 Mar 1549 16 Feb 1547
KG 1547
Peerage extinct on his death
19 Feb 1641 B 1 Francis Seymour c 1590 12 Jul 1664
Created Baron Seymour of Trowbridge
19 Feb 1641
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
12 Jul 1664 2 Charles Seymour 5 Feb 1621 25 Aug 1665 44
MP for Great Bedwyn 1640 and Wiltshire
25 Aug 1665 3 Francis Seymour 17 Jan 1658 20 Apr 1678 20
He succeeded to the Dukedom of Somerset
(qv) in 1675 with which title this peerage
then merged until its extinction in 1750
9 Jul 1863 Edward Adolphus Ferdinand Seymour 17 Jul 1835 30 Sep 1869 34
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Seymour 9 Jul 1863
He was the eldest son and heir apparent of the
12th Duke of Somerset, but died before he
could succeed to that title
11 Aug 1958 B[L] 1 Edward Arthur Alexander Shackleton 15 Jul 1911 22 Sep 1994 83
to     Created Baron Shackleton for life 11 Aug 1958
22 Sep 1994 MP for Preston 1946-1950 and Preston
South 1950-1955. Minister of Defence for
the RAF 1964-1967. Minister without
Portfolio 1967-1968. Lord Privy Seal 1968
and 1968-1970. Paymaster General 1968
PC 1966  KG 1974
Peerage extinct on his death
21 Dec 2010 B[L] 1 Fiona Sara Shackleton 26 May 1956
Created Baroness Shackleton of Belgravia for
life 21 Dec 2010
23 Apr 1672 E 1 Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper,2nd baronet 22 Jul 1621 21 Jan 1683 61
Created Baron Ashley 20 Apr 1661 and
Baron Cooper of Pawlett and Earl of
Shaftesbury 23 Apr 1672
MP for Tewkesbury 1640, Downton 1640
and Wiltshire 1653-1660. Chancellor of
the Exchequer 1661-1667. President of the
Board of Trade 1672-1676. Lord Chancellor
1672-1673. Lord Lieutenant Dorset 1672-1674
21 Jan 1683 2 Anthony Ashley Cooper 16 Jan 1652 2 Nov 1699 47
MP for Weymouth & Melcombe Regis 1673-1679
2 Nov 1699 3 Anthony Ashley Cooper 26 Feb 1671 4 Feb 1713 41
MP for Poole 1695-1698
4 Feb 1713 4 Anthony Ashley Cooper  9 Feb 1711 27 May 1771 60
Lord Lieutenant Dorset 1734-1771  PC 1761
29 May 1771 5 Anthony Ashley Cooper 17 Sep 1761 14 May 1811 49
14 May 1811 6 Cropley Ashley Cooper 21 Dec 1768 2 Jun 1851 82
MP for Dorchester 1790-1811.  PC 1814
2 Jun 1851 7 Anthony Ashley-Cooper 28 Apr 1801 1 Oct 1885 84
MP for Woodstock 1826-1830, Dorchester
1830-1831, Dorset 1831-1846 and Bath
1847-1851. Lord Lieutenant Dorset 1856-
1885.  KG 1862
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
1 Oct 1885 8 Anthony Ashley-Cooper 27 Jun 1831 13 Apr 1886 54
MP for Hull 1857-1859 and Cricklade
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
13 Apr 1886 9 Anthony Ashley-Cooper 31 Aug 1869 25 Mar 1961 91
Lord Lieutenant Belfast 1904-1911,Antrim
1911-1916 and Dorset 1916-1952.  KP 1911
PC 1922
25 Mar 1961 10 Anthony Ashley-Cooper 22 May 1938 Nov 2004 66
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
Nov 2004 11 Anthony Nils Christian Ashley-Cooper 24 Jun 1977 15 May 2005 27
15 May 2005 12 Nicholas Edmund Anthony Ashley-Cooper 3 Jun 1979
20 Aug 1892 B 1 Alexander Burns Shand 13 Dec 1828 6 Mar 1904 75
to     Created Baron Shand 20 Aug 1892
6 Mar 1904 PC 1890
Peerage extinct on his death
1 Jul 1918 B 1 Sir Ignatius John O'Brien,1st baronet 30 Jul 1857 10 Sep 1930 73
to     Created Baron Shandon 1 Jul 1918
10 Sep 1930 Solicitor General [I] 1911. Attorney
General [I] 1912. Lord Chancellor [I] 
1913-1918.  PC [I] 1912
Peerage extinct on his death
6 Sep 1660 V[I] 1 Francis Boyle 25 Jun 1623 Apr 1699 75
Created Baron Boyle and Viscount 
Shannon 6 Sep 1660
Apr 1699 2 Richard Boyle c 1675 20 Dec 1740  
to     MP for Arundel 1708-1710, Hythe 1710-1711
20 Dec 1740 and 1712-1715 and East Grinstead 1715-1734
PC [I] 1721
Peerage extinct on his death
20 Mar 1756 E[I] 1 Henry Boyle 1682 28 Dec 1764 82
Created Baron of Castle Martyr,
Viscount Boyle of Bandon and Earl of
Shannon 20 Mar 1756
Speaker of the House of Commons [I] 
1733-1756.  PC [I] 1733
28 Dec 1764 2 Richard Boyle 30 Jan 1728 20 May 1807 79
Created Baron Carleton 6 Aug 1786
PC [I] 1763  PC 1782  KP 1783
20 May 1807 3 Henry Boyle 8 Aug 1771 22 Apr 1842 70
Lord Lieutenant Cork 1831-1842  KP 1808.
PC [I] 1809  MP for co.Cork 1801-1807 and
Youghal 1807
22 Apr 1842 4 Richard Boyle 12 May 1809 1 Aug 1868 59
MP for co.Cork 1830-1832
1 Aug 1868 5 Henry Bentinck Boyle 22 Nov 1833 8 Feb 1890 56
8 Feb 1890 6 Richard Henry Boyle 15 May 1860 11 Dec 1906 46
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
11 Dec 1906 7 Richard Bernard Boyle 13 Nov 1897 13 Apr 1917 19
13 Apr 1917 8 Robert Henry Boyle 1 Feb 1900 29 Dec 1963 63
29 Dec 1963 9 Richard Bentinck Boyle 23 Oct 1924 9 May 2013 88
9 May 2013 10 Richard Henry John Boyle 19 Jan 1960
20 Dec 2010 B[L] 1 John Kevin Sharkey 24 Sep 1947
Created Baron Sharkey for life 20 Dec 2010
2 Aug 1999 B[L] 1 Colin Morven Sharman 19 Feb 1943
Created Baron Sharman for life 2 Aug 1999
19 Sep 1966 B[L] 1 Dame Evelyn Adelaide Sharp 25 May 1903 1 Sep 1985 82
to     Created Baroness Sharp for life 19 Sep 1966
1 Sep 1985 Peerage extinct on her death
21 Jul 1989 B[L] 1 Sir Eric Sharp 17 Aug 1916 2 May 1994 77
to     Created Baron Sharp of Grimsdyke for life
2 May 1994 21 Jul 1989
Peerage extinct on his death
1 Aug 1998 B[L] 1 Margaret Lucy Sharp 21 Nov 1938
Created Baroness Sharp of Guildford for life
1 Aug 1998
18 Jun 1973 B[L] 1 Pamela Sharples 11 Feb 1923
Created Baroness Sharples for life
18 Jun 1973
25 Jan 1916 B 1 Sir Thomas George Shaughnessy 6 Oct 1853 10 Dec 1923 70
Created Baron Shaughnessy 25 Jan 1916
10 Dec 1923 2 William James Shaughnessy 29 Sep 1883 4 Oct 1938 55
4 Oct 1938 3 William Graham Shaughnessy 28 Mar 1922 22 May 2003 81
22 May 2003 4 Michael James Shaughnessy 12 Nov 1946 9 Dec 2007 61
9 Dec 2007 5 Charles George Patrick Shaughnessy 9 Feb 1955
20 Feb 1909 B[L] 1 Thomas Shaw 23 May 1850 28 Jun 1937 87
to     Created Baron Shaw for life 20 Feb 1909
28 Jun 1937 He was subsequently created Baron
Craigmyle in 1929 (qv). This peerage
extinct on his death
30 Sep 1994 B[L] 1 Sir Michael Norman Shaw 9 Oct 1920
Created Baron Shaw of Northstead for life
30 Sep 1994
MP for Brighouse and Spenborough 1960-1964,
Scarborough and Whitby 1966-1974
and Scarborough 1974-1992
14 Feb 1959 B[L] 1 Sir Hartley William Shawcross 4 Feb 1902 10 Jul 2003 101
to     Created Baron Shawcross for life 14 Feb 1959
10 Jul 2003 MP for St.Helens 1945-1958. Attorney
General 1945-1951. President of the 
Board of Trade 1951.  PC 1946
Peerage extinct on his death
2 Oct 2015 B[L] 1 Shaista Ahmad Sheehan 29 Jul 1959
Created Baroness Sheehan for life 2 Oct 2015
16 Feb 1547 B 1 Sir Edmund Sheffield 23 Nov 1521 31 Jul 1549 27
Created Baron Sheffield 16 Feb 1547
31 Jul 1549 2 John Sheffield c 1538 10 Dec 1568
10 Dec 1568 3 Edmund Sheffield c 1564 6 Oct 1646
He was created Earl of Mulgrave (qv) in
1626 with which title this peerage then
9 Jan 1781 B[I] 1 John Baker-Holroyd 21 Dec 1735 30 May 1821 85
20 Sep 1783 B[I] 1 Created Baron Sheffield [I] 
29 Jul 1802 B 1 9 Jan 1781 and 20 Sep 1783, Baron
22 Jan 1816 E[I] 1 Sheffield [UK] 29 Jul 1802 and 
Viscount Pevensey and Earl of
Sheffield [I] 22 Jan 1816
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of the Barony of 1783, see the note at the
foot of this page
MP for Coventry 1780 and Bristol 1790-1802
President of the Board of Agriculture 1803
PC 1809
30 May 1821 2 George Augustus Frederick Charles
Holroyd 16 Mar 1802 5 Apr 1876 74
5 Apr 1876 3 Henry North Holroyd 18 Jan 1832 21 Apr 1909 77
to     MP for Sussex East 1857-1865
21 Apr 1909 On his death all peerages except the Irish
Barony of 1783 became extinct. The Irish
Barony of 1783 merged with the Barony of
Stanley of Alderley (qv)
6 Jun 2006 B[L] 1 Mohamed Iltaf Sheikh 13 Jun 1941
Created Baron Sheikh for life 6 Jun 2006
31 Dec 1688 B[I] 1 Elizabeth Petty c 1708
to     [L] Created Baroness Shelburne for life
c 1708 31 Dec 1688
Peerage extinct on her death
31 Dec 1688 B[I] 1 Charles Petty c 1673 Apr 1696
to     Created Baron Shelburne 31 Dec 1688
Apr 1696 Peerage extinct on his death
29 Apr 1719 E[I] 1 Henry Petty 22 Oct 1675 17 Apr 1751 75
to     Created Baron Shelburne 16 Jun 1699
17 Apr 1751 and Viscount Dunkerron and Earl of
Shelburne 29 Apr 1719
MP for Great Marlow 1715-1722 and Wycombe 
1722-1727  PC [I] 1701 
Peerages extinct on his death
For information on the Earl's son, who predeceased
him,see the note at the foot of this page
6 Jun 1753 E[I] 1 John Petty 1706 14 May 1761 54
Created Baron Dunkeron and Viscount
Fitzmaurice 7 Oct 1751 and Earl of
Shelburne 6 Jun 1753 and Baron
Wycombe 20 May 1760
MP for Wycombe 1754-1760. PC [I] 1754
14 May 1761 2 William Petty 2 May 1737 7 May 1805 68
He was created Marquess of Lansdowne (qv)
in 1784 with which title this peerage then
22 Jun 2001 B[L] 1 Robert Edward Sheldon 13 Sep 1923 2 Feb 2020 96
to Created Baron Sheldon for life 22 Jun 2001
2 Feb 2020 MP for Ashton-under-Lyne 1964-2001. 
Minister of State,Civil Service 1974. 
Minister of State,Treasury 1974-1975. Fin
Sec to Treasury 1975-1979  PC 1977
Peerage extinct on his death
21 Jun 2005 B[L] 1 Gillian Patricia Shephard 22 Jan 1940
Created Baroness Shephard of Northwold
for life 21 Jun 2005
MP for Norfolk SW 1987-2005. Min of State,
Treasury 1990-1992. Secretary of State for
Employment 1992-1993. Minister of Agriculture,
Fisheries and Food 1993-1994. Secretary of State
for Education and Employment 1994-1997. PC 1992
28 Jun 1946 B 1 George Robert Shepherd 19 Aug 1881 4 Dec 1954 73
Created Baron Shepherd 28 Jun 1946
PC 1952
4 Dec 1954 2 Malcolm Newton Shepherd 27 Sep 1918 5 Apr 2001 82
Minister Of State,Foreign and
Commonwealth Office 1967-1970. Lord
Privy Seal 1974-1976.  PC 1965
Created Baron Shepherd of Spalding
16 Nov 1999  (see below)
5 Apr 2001 3 Graeme George Shepherd 6 Jan 1949
16 Nov 1999 B[L] 1 Malcolm Newton Shepherd,2nd Baron Shepherd 27 Sep 1918 5 Apr 2001 82
to     Created Baron Shepherd of Spalding
5 Apr 2001 for life 16 Nov 1999
Peerage extinct on his death
6 Sep 1994 B[L] 1 Sir Allen John George Sheppard 25 Dec 1932 25 Mar 2015 82
to     Created Baron Sheppard of Didgemere
25 Mar 2015 for life 6 Sep 1994
Peerage extinct on his death
14 Feb 1998 B[L] 1 David Stuart Sheppard 6 Mar 1929 5 Mar 2005 75
to     Created Baron Sheppard of Liverpool
5 Mar 2005 for life 14 Feb 1998
Bishop of Liverpool 1975-1997
Peerage extinct on his death
6 Sep 1680 E[L] 1 Elizabeth Walter c 1625 Jul 1686
to     Created Countess of Sheppey for life
Jul 1686 6 Sep 1680
Peerage extinct on her death
The name of the peerage is variously spelled as
"Shepey" or,according to the London Gazette
(issue 1546,page 2) "Shippey".
10 Jul 1627 B[I] 1 Sir William Sherard 1 Aug 1588 1 Apr 1640 51
Created Baron Sherard 10 Jul 1627
1 Apr 1640 2 Bennet Sherard 30 Nov 1621 15 Jan 1700 78
MP for Leicestershire 1679-1681,1685-1687
and 1689-1695. Lord Lieutenant Rutland
15 Jan 1700 3 Bennet Sherard 9 Oct 1677 16 Oct 1732 55
31 Oct 1718 V 1 Created Viscount Sherard 31 Oct 1718
to     MP for Leicestershire 1701-1702 and
16 Oct 1732 Rutland 1713-1714. Lord Lieutenant
Rutland 1700-1712 and 1715-1732
He was later created Earl of Harborough
(qv) in 1719.
On his death the Viscountcy became extinct
whilst the Barony passed to -
16 Oct 1732 4 Philip Sherard,2nd Earl of Harborough c 1680 16 Feb 1750
16 Feb 1750 5 Bennet Sherard,3rd Earl of Harborough 3 Sep 1709 23 Feb 1770 60
23 Feb 1770 6 Robert Sherard,4th Earl of Harborough 21 Oct 1719 21 Apr 1799 79
21 Apr 1799 7 Philip Sherard,5th Earl of Harborough 10 Oct 1767 10 Dec 1807 40
10 Dec 1807 8 Robert Sherard,6th Earl of Harborough 26 Aug 1797 28 Jul 1859 61
28 Jul 1859 9 Philip Castell Sherard 7 Mar 1804 14 Mar 1886 82
14 Mar 1886 10 Castell Sherard 17 Aug 1849 5 Oct 1902 53
5 Oct 1902 11 Philip Halton Sherard 2 May 1851 1 May 1924 72
1 May 1924 12 Robert Castell Sherard 1858 14 Jun 1931 72
to     Peerage extinct on his death
14 Jun 1931
20 May 1784 B 1 James Dutton 22 Oct 1744 22 May 1820 75
Created Baron Sherborne 20 May 1784
MP for Gloucestershire 1781-1784
22 May 1820 2 John Dutton 24 Jun 1779 19 Oct 1862 83
19 Oct 1862 3 James Henry Legge Dutton 30 May 1804 8 Mar 1883 78
8 Mar 1883 4 Edward Lenox Dutton 23 Apr 1831 19 Jul 1919 88
19 Jul 1919 5 Frederick George Dutton 28 May 1840 2 Jan 1920 79
2 Jan 1920 6 James Huntley Dutton 5 Mar 1873 17 Sep 1949 76
17 Sep 1949 7 Charles Dutton 13 May 1911 25 Dec 1982 71
25 Dec 1982 8 Ralph Stawell Dutton 25 Aug 1898 20 Apr 1985 86
to     Peerage extinct on his death
20 Apr 1985
12 Sep 2013 B[L] 1 Sir Stephen Ashley Sherbourne 15 Oct 1945
Created Baron Sherbourne of Didsbury for life
12 Sep 2013
25 May 1880 V 1 Robert Lowe 4 Dec 1811 27 Jul 1892 80
to     Created Viscount Sherbrooke 25 May 1880
27 Jul 1892 MP for Kidderminster 1852-1859, Calne
1859-1868 and University of London 1868-
1880. Vice President of the Board of Trade
and Paymaster General 1855-1858. Vice
President of the Council of Education 
1859-1864. Chancellor of the Exchequer
1868-1873. Home Secretary 1873-1874.
PC 1855
Peerage extinct on his death
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
29 Jun 1964 B 1 Roger Mellor Makins 3 Feb 1904 9 Nov 1996 92
Created Baron Sherfield 29 Jun 1964
9 Nov 1996 2 Christopher James Makins 23 Jul 1942 28 Jan 2006 63
28 Jan 2006 3 Dwight William Makins 2 Mar 1951
17 Jun 2010 B[L] 1 Maeve Christina Mary Sherlock 10 Nov 1960
Created Baroness Sherlock for life 17 Jun 2010
14 Aug 1941 B 1 Sir Hugh Michael Seely,3rd baronet 2 Oct 1898 1 Apr 1970 71
to     Created Baron Sherwood 14 Aug 1941
1 Apr 1970 MP for Norfolk East 1923-1924 and
Berwick upon Tweed 1935-1941
Peerage extinct on his death
16 Sep 2014 B[L] 1 Joanna Shields 12 Jul 1962
Created Baroness Shields for life 16 Sep 2014
7 May 1697 B 1 Edward Russell 1653 26 Nov 1727 74
to     Created Baron of Shingay,Viscount
26 Nov 1727 Barfleur and Earl of Orford 
7 May 1697
See "Orford"
14 Oct 2015 B[L] 1 Kevin Joseph Maximilian Shinkwin 7 Jun 1971
Created Baron Shinkwin for life 14 Oct 2015
19 Jun 1970 B[L] 1 Emanuel Shinwell 18 Oct 1884 8 May 1986 101
to     Created Baron Shinwell for life 19 Jun 1970
8 May 1986 MP for Linlithgowshire 1922-1924 and 1929-1931,
Seaham 1935-1950 and Easington 1950-1970.
Minister of Fuel and Power 1945-1947. 
Secretary of State for War 1947-1950.
Minister of Defence 1950-1951.  PC 1945
CH 1965
Peerage extinct on his death
8 Feb 1777 E[I] 1 Francis Vernon c 1715 15 Oct 1783
to     Created Baron Orwell 7 Apr 1762,
15 Oct 1783 Viscount Orwell 21 Jul 1776 and Earl
of Shipbrook 8 Feb 1777
MP for Ipswich 1762-1768
Peerages extinct on his death
14 Jul 2010 B[L] 1 John Shipley 5 Jul 1946
Created Baron Shipley for life 14 Jul 2010
5 Jun 1997 B[L] 1 Peter David Shore 20 May 1924 24 Sep 2001 77
to     Created Baron Shore for life 5 Jun 1997
24 Sep 2001 MP for Stepney 1964-1974, Stepney and
Poplar 1974-1983 and Bethnal Green and
Stepney 1983-1997. Secretary of State for
Economic Affairs 1967-1969. Minister
without Portfolio 1969-1970. Secretary of
State for Trade and Industry 1974-1976..
Secretary of State for the Environment
1976-1979.  PC 1967
Peerage extinct on his death
1074 E 1 Roger de Montgomery 27 Jul 1094
Created Earl of Shrewsbury 1074
27 Jul 1094 2 Hugh de Montgomery 27 Jul 1098
27 Jul 1098 3 Robert de Montgomery after 1113
to     He was deprived of the peerage in 1102
20 May 1442 E 1 John Talbot,7th Lord Talbot 1390 17 Jul 1453 63
Created Earl of Shrewsbury
20 May 1442 and Earl of Waterford
17 Jul 1446
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1414-1419,
1425-1426 and 1445-1447.  KG 1424
17 Jul 1453 2 John Talbot 1413 10 Jul 1460 47
Lord Treasurer 1456-1458  KG 1457
10 Jul 1460 3 John Talbot 12 Dec 1448 28 Jun 1473 24
28 Jun 1473 4 George Talbot 1468 26 Jul 1538 70
KG 1488
26 Jul 1538 5 Francis Talbot 1500 21 Sep 1560 60
KG 1545
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Talbot 17 Feb 1533
21 Sep 1560 6 George Talbot 1528 18 Nov 1590 62
KG 1561
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Talbot 5 Jan 1553
For information on his wife,Bess of Hardwick,see
the note at the foot of this page
18 Nov 1590 7 Gilbert Talbot 20 Nov 1552 8 May 1616 63
MP for Derbyshire 1572-1583. Lord
Lieutenant Derbyshire 1605. KG 1592
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Talbot 28 Jan 1589
8 May 1616 8 Edward Talbot 25 Feb 1561 8 Feb 1618 56
MP for Northumberland 1584-1587
8 Feb 1618 9 George Talbot 2 Apr 1630
2 Apr 1630 10 John Talbot by 1601 8 Feb 1654
8 Feb 1654 11 Francis Talbot c 1623 16 Mar 1668
For information on this peer's wife,see the note
at the foot of this page
16 Mar 1668 12 Charles Talbot 24 Jul 1660 1 Feb 1718 57
30 Apr 1694 D 1 Created Marquess of Alton and Duke 
to     of Shrewsbury 30 Apr 1694
1 Feb 1718 Secretary of State 1689-1690 and 1694-
1699. Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1713-1714.
Lord High Treasurer 1714.  PC 1689  
KG 1694. Lord Lieutenant Staffordshire 1681-1687,
Herefordshire 1694-1704, Hertford 1689-1691,
Shropshire 1712-1714,Wiltshire 1689-1718 and
Anglesey,Caernarvon 1694-1696
For information on the Duke's brother-in-law,
see the note at the foot of this page
On his death the Dukedom became extinct
whilst the Earldom passed to -
1 Feb 1718 13 Gilbert Talbot 11 Jan 1673 22 Jul 1743 80
22 Jul 1743 14 George Talbot 11 Dec 1719 22 Jul 1787 67
22 Jul 1787 15 Charles Talbot 8 Mar 1753 6 Apr 1827 74
6 Apr 1827 16 John Talbot 18 Mar 1791 9 Nov 1852 61
9 Nov 1852 17 Bertram Arthur Talbot 11 Dec 1832 10 Aug 1856 23
10 Aug 1856 18 Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot 8 Nov 1803 4 Jun 1868 64
MP for Hertford 1830-1831 and 1832-1833,
Dublin 1831-1832 and Staffordshire South 1837-
1849.  PC 1858
He had previously succeeded as 3rd Earl 
Talbot (qv) in 1849
For further information on the "Great Shrewsbury
Case" of 1857-1858, see the note at the foot
of this page
4 Jun 1868 19 Charles John Chetwynd-Talbot (also 4th Earl
Talbot) 13 Apr 1830 11 May 1877 47
MP for Stafford 1857-1859,Staffordshire North
1859-1868 and Stamford 1868   PC 1875
11 May 1877 20 Charles Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot (also 5th
Earl Talbot) 13 Nov 1860 7 May 1921 60
For information on this peer, his wife and his son,
see the note at the foot of this page
7 May 1921 21 John George Charles Henry Alton Alexander
Chetwynd Chetwynd-Talbot (also 6th Earl Talbot) 1 Dec 1914 12 Nov 1980 65
12 Nov 1980 22 Charles Henry John Benedict Crofton Chetwynd
Chetwynd-Talbot (also 7th Earl Talbot) 18 Dec 1952
[Elected hereditary peer 1999-]
31 Jul 1776 B[I] 1 Molyneux Shuldham c 1717 30 Sep 1798
to     Created Baron Shuldham 31 Jul 1776
30 Sep 1798 Governor of Newfoundland 1772-1775.
MP for Fowey 1774-1784
Peerage extinct on his death
17 Apr 1880 B 1 George William Barrington 14 Feb 1824 7 Nov 1886 62
Created Baron Shute 17 Apr 1880
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
See "Barrington" - extinct 1990
12 May 2000 B[L] 1 David Trevor Shutt 16 Mar 1942
Created Baron Shutt of Greetland for life
12 May 2000
PC 2009
16 Jul 1902 B 1 Sir Ughtred James Kay-Shuttleworth,2nd baronet 18 Dec 1844 20 Dec 1939 95
Created Baron Shuttleworth
16 Jul 1902
MP for Hastings 1869-1880 and Clitheroe
1885-1902. Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster 1886. Lord Lieutenant Lancashire
1908-1928.  PC 1886
20 Dec 1939 2 Richard Ughtred Paul Kay-Shuttleworth 30 Oct 1913 8 Aug 1940 26
8 Aug 1940 3 Ronald Orlando Lawrence 
Kay-Shuttleworth 7 Oct 1917 17 Nov 1942 25
17 Nov 1942 4 Charles Ughtred John Kay-Shuttleworth 24 Jun 1917 5 Oct 1975 58
5 Oct 1975 5 Charles Geoffrey Nicholas
Kay-Shuttleworth 2 Aug 1948
Lord Lieutenant Lancashire 1997-     KG 2016
12 Jan 1805 V 1 Henry Addington 30 May 1757 15 Feb 1844 86
Created Viscount Sidmouth
12 Jan 1805
MP for Devizes 1784-1805. Speaker of the
House of Commons 1789-1801. Prime
Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer
1801-1805. Lord President of the Council
1805,1806-1807 and 1812. Lord Privy Seal
1806. Home Secretary 1812-1822. PC 1789
15 Feb 1844 2 William Leonard Addington 13 Nov 1794 25 Mar 1864 69
25 Mar 1864 3 William Wells Addington 25 Mar 1824 28 Oct 1913 89
MP for Devizes 1863-1864
28 Oct 1913 4 Gerald Anthony Pellew Bagnall
Addington 29 Nov 1854 25 Mar 1915 60
25 Mar 1915 5 Gerald William Addington 19 Aug 1882 4 Apr 1953 70
4 Apr 1953 6 Raymond Anthony Addington 24 Jan 1887 7 Feb 1976 89
7 Feb 1976 7 John Tonge Anthony Pellew Addington 3 Oct 1914 30 Jan 2005 90
30 Jan 2005 8 Jeremy Francis Addington 29 Jul 1947
18 Jan 1966 B[L] 1 Israel Moses Sieff 4 May 1889 14 Feb 1972 82
to     Created Baron Sieff for life 18 Jan 1966
14 Feb 1972 Peerage extinct on his death
14 Feb 1980 B[L] 1 Sir Marcus Joseph Sieff 2 Jul 1913 23 Feb 2001 87
to     Created Baron Sieff of Brimpton for life
23 Feb 2001 14 Feb 1980
Peerage extinct on his death
17 Jul 1821 B 1 Thomas Pakenham 14 May 1774 28 May 1835 61
Created Baron Silchester 17 Jul 1821
See "Longford"
4 Jul 1950 B 1 Lewis Silkin 14 Nov 1889 11 May 1972 82
Created Baron Silkin 4 Jul 1950
MP for Peckham 1936-1950  PC 1945 CH 1965
11 May 1972 2 Arthur Silkin 20 Oct 1916 25 Nov 2001 85
to     He disclaimed the peerage for life 18 May 1972
18 May 1972
25 Nov 2001 3 Christopher Lewis Silkin 12 Sep 1947
to     He disclaimed the peerage for life May 2002
May 2002
13 May 1985 B[L] 1 Samuel Charles Silkin 6 Mar 1918 17 Aug 1988 70
to     Created Baron Silkin of Dulwich for life
17 Aug 1988 13 May 1985
MP for Dulwich 1964-1983. Attorney
General 1974-1979.  PC 1974
Peerage extinct on his death
18 Jan 1963 B 1 Sir Arthur Malcolm Trustram Eve,1st baronet 8 Apr 1894 3 Dec 1976 82
Created Baron Silsoe 18 Jan 1963
3 Dec 1976 2 David Malcolm Trustram Eve 2 May 1930 31 Dec 2005 75
31 Dec 2005 3 Simon Rupert Trustram Eve 17 Apr 1966
12 May 1965 B[L] 1 Thomas Spensley Simey 25 Nov 1906 27 Dec 1969 63
to     Created Baron Simey for life 12 May 1965
27 Dec 1969 Peerage extinct on his death
20 May 1940 V 1 John Allsebrook Simon 28 Feb 1873 11 Jan 1954 80
Created Viscount Simon 20 May 1940
MP for Walthamstow 1906-1918 and Spen
Valley 1922-1940. Solicitor General 1910-
1913. Attorney General 1913-1914. Home
Secretary 1915-1916 and 1935-1937. 
Chancellor of the Exchequer 1937-1940.
Lord Chancellor 1940-1945.  PC 1913
11 Jan 1954 2 John Gilbert Simon 2 Sep 1902 5 Dec 1993 91
5 Dec 1993 3 Jan David Simon  [Elected hereditary peer 1999-] 20 Jul 1940
5 Feb 1971 B[L] 1 Sir Jocelyn Edward Salis Simon 15 Jan 1911 7 May 2006 95
to     Created Baron Simon of Glaisdale for life
7 May 2006 5 Feb 1971
MP for Middlesbrough West 1951-1962.
Financial Secretary to the Treasury 1958-
1959. Solicitor General 1959-1962. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 1971-1977.  PC 1961
Peerage extinct on his death
16 May 1997 B[L] 1 Sir David Alec Gwyn Simon 24 Jul 1939
Created Baron Simon of Highbury for life
16 May 1997
17 Jan 1947 B 1 Sir Ernest Darwin Simon 9 Oct 1879 3 Oct 1960 80
Created Baron Simon of Wythenshawe
17 Jan 1947
MP for Withington 1923-1924 and 1929-1931
3 Oct 1960 2 Roger Simon 16 Oct 1913 14 Oct 2002 88
14 Oct 2002 3 Matthew Simon 10 Apr 1955
18 Oct 1954 V 1 Sir Gavin Turnbull Simonds 28 Nov 1881 28 Jun 1971 89
to     Created Baron Simonds 18 Apr 1944 
28 Jun 1971 [for life] and 24 Jun 1952 and 
Viscount Simonds 18 Oct 1954
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1944 and 1954-
1962. Lord Chancellor 1951-1954  PC 1944
Peerages extinct on his death
5 Nov 1997 B[L] 1 George Simpson 2 Jul 1942
Created Baron Simpson of Dunkeld for life
5 Nov 1997
c 1449 B[S] 1 William Sinclair,3rd Earl of Orkney 1476
Created Lord Sinclair c 1449 and
Earl of Caithness 28 Aug 1455
1476 2 William Sinclair Jul 1487
Jul 1487 3 Henry Sinclair 9 Sep 1513
9 Sep 1513 4 William Sinclair 1570
1570 5 Henry Sinclair 1528 21 Oct 1601 73
21 Oct 1601 6 Henry Sinclair Mar 1581 1602 21
1602 7 James Sinclair 1607
1607 8 Patrick Sinclair 1615
1615 9 John Sinclair 29 Oct 1610 10 Nov 1674 64
10 Nov 1674 10 Henry St.Clair 3 Jun 1660 Mar 1723 62
to     On his death the heir was under attainder
Mar 1723
[Mar 1723]   [John St.Clair] 5 Dec 1683 2 Nov 1750 66
[2 Nov 1750] [James St.Clair] 30 Nov 1762
MP for Dysart Burghs 1722-1734 and 
1747-1754, Sutherland 1736-1747 and
Fifeshire 1754-1762
30 Nov 1762 11 Charles St.Clair 4 Jan 1775
4 Jan 1775 12 Andrew St.Clair 30 Jul 1733 16 Dec 1775 42
16 Dec 1775 13 Charles St.Clair 30 Jul 1768 30 Mar 1863 94
30 Mar 1863 14 James St.Clair 3 Jul 1803 24 Oct 1880 77
24 Oct 1880 15 Charles William St.Clair 8 Sep 1831 25 Apr 1922 90
25 Apr 1922 16 Archibald James Murray St.Clair 16 Feb 1875 25 Nov 1957 82
25 Nov 1957 17 Charles Murray Kennedy St.Clair 21 Jun 1914 1 Apr 2004 89
Lord Lieutenant Dumfries and Kirkcudbright 
1 Apr 2004 18 Matthew Murray Kennedy St. Clair 9 Dec 1968
21 Jan 1957 B 1 Sir Robert John Sinclair 29 Jul 1893 4 Mar 1979 85
Created Baron Sinclair of Cleeve
21 Jan 1957
4 Mar 1979 2 John Robert Kilgour Sinclair 3 Nov 1919 27 Aug 1985 65
27 Aug 1985 3 John Lawrence Robert Sinclair 6 Jan 1953
12 Oct 2011 B[L] 1 Indarjit Singh 1932
Created Baron Singh of Wimbledon for life
12 Oct 2011
14 Feb 1919 B 1 Sir Satyendra Prasanno Sinha Jun 1864 5 Mar 1928 63
Created Baron Sunha 14 Feb 1919
PC 1919
5 Mar 1928 2 Arun Kumar Sinha 22 Aug 1887 11 May 1967 79
For further information on this peer's petition
for a writ of summons to the House of Lords,
see the note at the foot of this page
11 May 1967 3 Sudhindro Prossanho Sinha 29 Oct 1920 6 Jan 1989 68
6 Jan 1989 4 Susanta Prasanna Sinha 1953 1992 39
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
1992 5 Anindo Kumar Sinha 1930 18 Jan 1999 68
18 Jan 1999 6 Arup Kumar Sinha 23 Apr 1966
30 Jan 1828 B 1 Edward Bootle-Wilbraham 7 Mar 1771 3 Apr 1853 82
Created Baron Skelmersdale
30 Jan 1828
MP for Westbury 1795-1796, Newcastle
under Lyme 1796-1812, Clitheroe 1812-1818
and Dover 1818-1828
3 Apr 1853 2 Edward Bootle-Wilbraham,later [1880] 1st 12 Dec 1837 19 Nov 1898 60
Earl of Lathom
19 Nov 1898 3 Edward George Bootle-Wilbraham,2nd Earl
of Lathom 26 Oct 1864 15 Mar 1910 45
15 Mar 1910 4 Edward William Bootle-Wilbraham,3rd Earl
of Lathom 16 May 1895 6 Feb 1930 34
6 Feb 1930 5 Arthur George Bootle-Wilbraham 21 May 1876 9 Feb 1969 92
9 Feb 1969 6 Lionel Bootle-Wilbraham 23 Sep 1896 21 Jul 1973 76
21 Jul 1973 7 Roger Bootle-Wilbraham  [Elected hereditary peer   2 Apr 1945 31 Oct 2018 73
9 Aug 1977
31 Oct 2018 8 Andrew Bootle-Wilbraham
1 Oct 1857 B 1 James Duff,5th Earl of Fife 6 Jul 1814 7 Aug 1879 65
Created Baron Skene 1 Oct 1857
See "Fife"
15 Jul 1991 B[L] 1 Robert Jacob Alexander Skidelsky 25 Apr 1939
Created Baron Skidelsky for life 15 Jul 1991
2 Oct 1979 B[L] 1 Margaret Betty Harvie Anderson 12 Aug 1913 7 Nov 1979 66
to     Created Baroness Skrimshire of Quarter
7 Nov 1979 for life 2 Oct 1979
MP for Renfrewshire East 1959-1979  PC 1974
Peerage extinct on her death
12 Jun 1452 E[S] 1 Sir William Hay,2nd Lord Hay 1462
Created Lord Slains and Earl of Erroll
12 Jun 1452
See "Erroll"
c 1370 B[I] 1 Sir Simon Fleming Oct 1370
Created Baron Slane c 1370
Oct 1370 2 Thomas Fleming 1435
1435 3 Christopher Fleming 30 Nov 1446
30 Nov 1446 4 Christopher Fleming 1457
1457 5 David Fleming 1463
1463 6 Thomas Fleming 8 Dec 1470
8 Dec 1470 7 James Fleming 1492
1492 8 Christopher Fleming 9 Aug 1517
9 Aug 1517 9 James Fleming 1578
1578 10 Thomas Fleming 9 Nov 1597
9 Nov 1597 11 William Fleming 1612
1612 12 Christopher Fleming 9 Jun 1625
9 Jun 1625 13 Thomas Fleming c 1604 2 Aug 1651
He resigned the peerage in favour of -
1629 14 William Fleming 1641
1641 15 Charles Fleming 1661
1661 16 Randall Fleming 22 Oct 1676
22 Oct 1676 17 Christopher Fleming 1669 14 Jul 1726 57
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
16 Apr 1691
22 Jan 1816 V[I] 1 Henry Conyngham,5th Earl Conyngham 26 Dec 1766 28 Dec 1832 66
Created Viscount Slane,Earl of Mount 
Charles and Marquess Conyngham
22 Jan 1816
See "Conyngham"
8 Jul 1970 B[L] 1 Joseph Slater 13 Jun 1904 21 Apr 1977 72
to     Created Baron Slater for life 8 Jul 1970
21 Apr 1977 MP for Sedgefield 1950-1970
Peerage extinct on his death
29 Dec 1800 M[I] 1 John Denis Browne,3rd Earl of Altamont 11 Jun 1756 2 Jan 1809 52
Created Marquess of Sligo 29 Dec 1800
and Baron Monteagle 20 Feb 1806
PC [I] 1785  KP 1800
2 Jan 1809 2 Howe Peter Browne 18 May 1788 26 Jan 1845 56
Lord Lieutenant Mayo 1842-1845. KP 1810 
PC [I] 1809  PC 1834
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
26 Jan 1845 3 George John Browne 31 Jan 1820 30 Dec 1896 76
30 Dec 1896 4 John Thomas Browne 10 Sep 1824 30 Dec 1903 79
MP for Mayo 1857-1868
30 Dec 1903 5 Henry Ulick Browne 14 Mar 1831 24 Feb 1913 81
24 Feb 1913 6 George Ulick Browne 1 Sep 1856 26 Feb 1935 78
Lord Lieutenant Mayo 1914-1922
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
26 Feb 1935 7 Ulick de Burgh Browne 30 Mar 1898 7 Jan 1941 42
7 Jan 1941 8 Arthur Howe Browne 8 May 1867 28 May 1951 84
28 May 1951 9 Terence Morris Browne 28 Sep 1873 28 Jul 1952 78
28 Jul 1952 10 Denis Edward Browne 13 Dec 1908 11 Sep 1991 82
11 Sep 1991 11 Jeremy Ulick Browne 4 Jun 1939 13 Jul 2014 75
13 Jul 2014 12 Sebastian Ulick Browne 27 May 1964
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury
The following biography of Shaftesbury appeared in the March 1953 issue of the Australian
monthly magazine "Parade":-
'There was only a small attendance in the House of Commons on a summer evening of 1828
when a tall, melancholy young man rose nervously, and, in a voice that could hardly be heard,
revealed to an indifferent House the atrocities that existed in Britain's uncontrolled lunatic
asylums. Granite­faced businessmen and members of the aristocracy composing the majority
of his audience smiled sardonically, and muttered sourly that Ashley, son and heir of the sixth
Earl of Shaftesbury, was "making an awful fool of himself" in his first important speech. In a
a voice strangled by nervousness and the strength of his emotions, he courageously sought to
tell them in a wobbly whisper, of raving, half-naked men and women he had seen with pieces
of red cloth tied around their loins with rope as the only clothing, chained hand and foot in
cells little bigger than graves. He told of sick and half-starved lunatics untended for days on
end; of others he had seen sluiced down with cold water in the bitterest weather to rid them
of the filth in which they had been lying in straw that would have disgraced a pigsty.
'It was a recital of facts grim enough to make a hangman blanch. But it was an age when the
lords of the new industrial Machine Era were too busy making money, and those who called them
master were too desperately engaged in a battle for survival on starvation wages, for much 
thought to be given to questions of humanity. So the House was quite unmoved by the idealistic
young member's maiden speech, and dismissed it with a jocose reference to the quip that "there
is pleasure in being mad that only a madman knows."
'Ashley, who became the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury in 1851, recorded that he was disgraced.
But there was pugnacious Churchill blood in his veins, and when he died some 57 years later, in
1885, he had not only cleaned up the madhouses as legislator and commissioner, but had wiped
out the heartless exploitation of child and women labour in mines, factories and fields, fixed the
working day at 10 hours instead of 13 to 16, and given thousands of thieves, prostitutes and
down-and-outs a chance of a new life in new lands. His triumph was all the greater by virtue
of the environment into which he was born - an environment of ease and luxury that would have
suborned the idealism of a less resolute mind. 
'Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, was born on April 28, 1801. His father, the
sixth earl was a crotchety old curmudgeon and Chairman of Committees in the House of Lords.
His mother was Anne Churchill, daughter of the fourth Duke of Marlborough, and a gay, elegant
leader of fashion who bore her children with more resignation than affection. As Lord Ashley, he
was sent at a tender age to a "good, old-fashioned, 'Dotheboys Hall,' a flogging school for 
noblemen" at Chiswick where he was most unhappy. "Nothing could surpass it for filth, bullying,
starvation, oppression, cruelty and neglect," he afterwards wrote. He went on to Harrow, and
then to Oxford, where he graduated with honours in the classics before entering parliament at
25 to represent his grandfather Marlborough's "rotten borough" of Woodstock, and later
'He entered parliament earnestly resolved to use his position as a power for good but sadly
conscious of his limitations. He was a tyro in political strategies, of no worldly experience, and
with no aptitude for impromptu speaking. Indeed, every sentence of every speech he ever made 
was the product of slow and hesitant construction in writing; and their delivery called for super-
human efforts from a faulty memory. And it is a fact that many times the integrity of his purpose
did achieve success when his naiveté seemed likely to bring the cause he sponsored to an 
impasse against the hostility of smarter minds than his. Indeed, the speech he thought a failure
actually launched him on his life-long crusades.
'Michael Sadler, M.P., who had earlier sponsored a Bill to restrict the working day of women and
children in factories to 10 hours had been thrown out of his seat for Bradford [sic - Sadler was 
never MP for Bradford] by outraged vested interests, and the workers, seeking a new champion,
asked the young sprig of aristocracy who had spoken so feelingly for the mad, to take up their
cause. Ashley investigated conditions in the north­country textile mills and found them revolting:
"Children as young as six were forced to work 13 and sometimes 16, hours a day, six days a
week, for three shillings, and were beaten with straps by overseers when they dozed at their
benches through exhaustion. In the cotton industry alone, 28,000 workers were under 13, and
thousands of them, bandy­legged and crippled, died before they were 18. They were twisted by
toil into the shape of all the letters of the alphabet," said the horrified Ashley after a lightning
visit to Bradford.
'When he introduced Sadler's Bill again he was savagely assailed by industrialists, and by their
lackeys in Parliament who clamoured that without child labour British overseas trade would be
ruined and profits would be entirely wiped out. Sycophantic doctors swore that 13 hours of
daily labour in a factory was healthy for children. When Ashley stubbornly produced his facts,
embellished by stories such as that a small boy beaten with a nail protruding from a piece of
wood till his buttocks were a jelly, because he could not stay awake they gibed that he should
go to his father's estate and see conditions there before he criticised conditions elsewhere. He
went, and returned to denounce his father for his treatment of his labourers - and was promptly
forbidden the family mansion at St.Giles.
By sheer persistence he shamed the Government into passing an Act forbidding factories from
employing children under nine, and limiting the hours of other female and juvenile workers. Many
employers promptly evaded or defied it, and lock-outs and military suppression broke up embryo
unions. In all the turmoil, quietly-spoken, but now more confident, Ashley returned to the attack
with his Ten Hours Bill, only to be branded an agitator bent upon duping the workers to their
undoing. He had ample reason to record that he was made the object of constant, minute and
pointed hatred. But out of his campaigning, limited in its immediate success as it was, there
blossomed a spirit of hope that added strength to his cause.
'Four times his Ten Hours Bill was rejected - in 1838, '39, '40 and '41 - and it was ironical that at
last enlightened public opinion forced parliament to accept it, thus bringing protection to more
than 2,000,000 sweated workers. Ashley was out [of the House of Commons], and it was piloted
through by his friend, John Fielden [MP for Oldham], one of Britain's few humane cotton-spinners.
Ashley by then had resigned because his high sense of honour forbade him to continue repres-
enting a protectionist county [Dorset] while approving the repeal of the Corn Laws with which a
tardy Government tried to ameliorate the horrors of the Irish famine. A few months later he
returned to parliament representing Bath. 
'While the factory battle was still raging Ashley demanded an inquiry into the condition of women
and children in the mines. The report horrified the nation, which heard for the first time of
children of six crouching alone in stygian darkness opening and shutting airdoors as half-naked
women and children, tethered by chains like dogs, hauled heavy-laden coal trucks through foetid
passages, some not more than 18 inches high. This time it was the land and coalowners in the
Lords who denounced him as an agitator and traitor to his class, and blasted even wider the 
breach between the melancholy but stubborn young reformer and his father. Bitterly, the old
Earl, as chairman of the Lords' Committees, framed the opposition to his son's Bill emancipating
women from the mines. But in the end the Lords had to pass it. Public opinion forced it through.
'Ashley was diffident, of a retiring disposition, inclined to melancholy, and faced every crusade
he entered upon full of nervous dread of the rumpus that he knew it would create. But he was
driven on, and mentally supported by an ardent religious faith. Indeed, some of his evangelical
campaigns as a stalwart of the Church of England were fanatically puritan. It was this driving
religious zeal that made him accept with proud humility the obloquy of his own class who
regarded him as a "tedious, queer, stiff figure," but who, in the end, counted him among the
great. In appearance he was tall with a sensitive face fringed with feathery side whiskers.
Friends called him "The Sublime," as opposed to his brother William, "The Beautiful."
He had great compassion. After viewing scenes of filth, discomfort and disease which no pen
could describe in the slums of Bethnal Green and Whitechapel, he fought a campaign which 
resulted in the establishment of the first Board of Health and was its first Commissioner. To
help the thousands of slum orphans who were knocked about from pillar to post, sleeping
under arches, carts, sawpits, on staircases and in kilns, Ashley adopted the Ragged Schools to
educate and train them. He formed associations to help London's submerged tenth, coster-
mongers, shoeblacks, crossing sweepers, flowersellers, thieves and prostitutes, and once 
addressed a meeting of 400 men who had all been in gaol and 200 of whom admitted frankly
that they lived by burglary alone. He found jobs or new homes in the colonies for some 300
of them.
'Many attempts were made to suborn his reforming zeal. He was offered posts in the Cabinet,
and the office of Chief Scullion to the Queen, which would have entitled him to carry a white 
wand and supervise the royal meals while bombarding Her Majesty with highly moral advice.
But he turned them down because millions still waited to be brought under the protection of
his Factory Acts. He earned the lifelong hostility of Queen Victoria by refusing the Order of
the Garter, but later [1862] was persuaded by Palmerston to accept it.
'Ashley succeeded his father and became the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury in 1851. He promptly
sold costly family pictures to introduce reforms on his debt-encumbered estate, which, though
always hard-pressed for money, he endowed with schools and sports and social clubs that made
a model for other landowners. When he succeeded to the title he was in the middle of his
longest parliamentary battle, a series of Bills designed to rescue hundreds of children, many of
them only four or five years old, kidnapped and sold to chimney sweeps who forced them to
climb the tortuous chimneys of stately homes to clean out the soot. It was 1875 before
Shaftesbury could break down opposition and bring in a licensing system that ended the atrocity.
'Though claimed by some to be Britain's greatest reformer, it is a curious fact that Shaftesbury
himself never actually inaugurated the reforms he implemented. Shaftesbury, however, adopted
them when they were forlorn hopes, galvanised them into life, and with the driving force of his
religious zeal carried them through to success. He died on October 1, 1885, revered by many
who had formerly opposed and detested him.'
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 8th Earl of Shaftesbury
The following is extracted from "Reynolds' Newspaper" of 18 April 1886:-
'The Earl of Shaftesbury committed suicide on Tuesday [13 April 1886], by shooting himself with 
a revolver, while being driven in a cab along Upper Regent-street. It appears that his lordship
engaged a cab in the upper part of Regent-street shortly after four o'clock, and directed the
cabman to drive down the street. The driver did so, and on reaching the lower end of the
thoroughfare was told by the earl to return. This the man did, and when the upper end of the
street was reached, his lordship again directed the cab to be turned around. This was done
several times, and when the cab was near Oxford-street, about half-past four o'clock, the driver
heard a shot. He jumped down, and the earl, who was unknown to him, said, "It's all right,
cabman: drive on!" The man replied, Yes, I know it's all right; but what is this?" and pointed to
a bullet-hole in the front part of the cab, adding, "I value my life too much to drive on." He was,
however, about to mount the box again, when a second report was heard, and this time Lord
Shaftesbury shot himself in the left temple. At this moment Police-constable Smith, who had
heard the first report, came up, and entering the cab, told the cabman to drive up to the
Middlesex Hospital. A crowd gathered around the vehicle, but the earl was not recognised by 
anyone until the hospital was reached, a few minutes afterwards. There the policeman and 
driver of the cab carried his lordship, who was still alive, into the in-patient's ward, and
summoned the assistance of the house-surgeon, Dr. Bartlett, but Lord Shaftesbury was just
breathing his last, and was beyond all surgical aid, the bullet having penetrated the brain. 
Meanwhile an intimation of the sad occurrence had been sent to the friends of the deceased,
and in a short time the Countess of Shaftesbury arrived, followed by his lordship's butler, but
only to learn that the worst had happened. The weapon used was a six-barrelled revolver, and
it is supposed from the position of the first shot that it had been fired accidentally, but the
situation of the fatal wound showed that the second was discharged with deliberate aim.'
At the subsequent inquest, evidence was heard that the Earl had, for the last few months of
his life, suffered from depression. The dead Earl's brother gave evidence that the Earl felt that
life was no longer worth living. He would stay in bed for days on end, and all of the Earl's
servants were directed to keep an eye on him. Great care was taken to remove all weapons
out of his reach, although it was not considered necessary to place the Earl under restraint.
When the Earl's clothing was searched after his death, a number of scraps of paper were
found. On these, in the Earl's handwriting, were found the words "I am no good to anybody.
I cannot live any longer. Forgive me! Bless you, dear Harriet! [Lady Shaftesbury]. You are too
good for me."
The coroner's jury returned a verdict that the Earl had committed suicide by shooting himself
with a revolver whilst in a state of unsound mind.
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 10th Earl of Shaftesbury
The 10th Earl of Shaftesbury was a very wealthy and flamboyant character, in the same mould
as his father, Lord Ashley, the son of the 9th Earl. Lord Ashley died in 1947 before he could
succeed to the title, which therefore passed, on the death of the 9th Earl in 1961, to his
grandson, the 10th Earl. 
Lord Ashley had already shocked 1920s society by marrying the model and actress Sylvia 
Hawkes in 1927, before divorcing her some years later. She later married four more times, two
of her later husbands being Douglas Fairbanks and Clark Gable. Lord Ashley later married 
Francoise Goussault, who became the mother of the 10th Earl.
The 10th Earl was educated at Eton, where he developed a taste for exotic women. He does
not appear to have had much regard for young women of his own class, describing them in the
Eton school magazine as 'round-shouldered, unsophisticated garglers of pink champagne.'
After studying at Oxford, the Earl embarked upon matrimony for the first time in 1966, when he
married the 40-year old divorcee Bianca Le Vien. They were divorced in 1976 due to the Earl's
adulterous habits. Later that year he married another divorcee, Christina Casella. This marriage
produced the 11th and 12th Earls of Shaftesbury, but also ended in divorce.
After the death of his mother in 1999 and the divorce from his second wife, the Earl re-located
to France, spending much of his time on the Cote d'Azur, where, despite being in his early 60s,
he plunged into a hectic social life, fuelled, it is said, by alcohol and Viagra. He was described as
'a philanthropist who specialised in rescuing lap dancers.'
In 2002, he announced that he planned to marry a French lingerie model named Nathalie Lions,
but this marriage never eventuated. Instead, on 5th November 2002, he married a Dutch-
Tunisian nightclub hostess named Djamila M'Barek. This marriage made no difference to his social
life, and he and his wife were separated by early 2004, when he took up with a woman named 
Nadia Orch, variously described as a 'Moroccan prostitute' or, more euphemistically, 'a club 
On 6 November 2004, the Earl checked out of his Cannes hotel and then vanished. When no 
trace of him was found, the French police launched a formal criminal enquiry. Initially, it was 
thought that he may have been kidnapped by gangsters in order to extort his fortune from him, 
but this theory was soon discounted and the police authorities came to believe that the Earl had
been murdered.
In February 2005, Djamila M'Barek was admitted to a psychiatric hospital, where she confessed 
to being involved in her husband's death. She claimed that her brother Mohammed M'Barek had
strangled the Earl in her flat at Cannes, and had dumped the body. She was subsequently
arrested, as was her brother. Mohammed denied his involvement and claimed no knowledge of
the location of the Earl's body.
By examining the Earl's phone records, the police were able to identify the telephone mast which
received the last-known signal from the Earl's mobile phone. This clue led police to search the
undergrowth in a valley on the outskirts of Cannes where, on 7 April 2005, they found a badly
decomposed body that had been half-eaten by animals. 
In May 2007, Djamila and Mohammed M'Barek were tried for the murder of the Earl. Both were
found guilty and both received 25-year prison sentences.
Richard Henry Boyle, 6th Earl of Shannon
On the death of the 5th Earl of Shannon in February 1890, the next heir was his eldest son, 
Richard Henry Boyle, known under his courtesy title of Viscount Boyle. The difficulty was that
Richard had moved to Canada in 1883 and had not been heard of for the last two years.
The following article is taken from "The Times" of 2 April 1890:-
'The Hon. Henry Boyle left London on Saturday last [29 March 1890] for Canada, with the view
of endeavouring to find some traces of his eldest brother, of whom nothing has been heard for
over two years, and who, by the somewhat sudden death of his father, the [5th] Earl of
Shannon, some months ago, has succeeded to the family titles and estates.
'About seven years ago Viscount Boyle, having resigned his commission in the Rifle Brigade,
left England with the view of settling in the west of Canada, and he was subsequently joined
by his brother Henry, and they were engaged together for some time in ranching operations.
As the speculation did not, however, prove as successful as was expected, the brothers
separated, and after a short interval Mr. Henry Boyle decided some three years back to return
to England in order to avail himself of an opening which [he had been] offered in the City. 
Before leaving Mr. Boyle wrote to his brother telling him he was going home. Lord Boyle decided,
however, to remain in Canada, and since then, with the exception of a report received from an
innkeeper that he was seen about two years ago near one of the mining camps, nothing has
been heard of him. Last year every effort was made to find him, as, apart from the natural
anxiety of his friends, Lord Boyle came into a considerable sum of money, and it became
necessary to find him in order to procure his signature to some papers. It is understood that
Lord Shannon, before he died, had arranged to sell a considerable portion of the estates in
Ireland to the tenants…….He died, however, without signing the necessary deeds, and we
believe the matter will have to stand over until it is discovered who the present owner of the
estates is.'
Some months later, the new Earl resurfaced in New York. This report is taken from the 
"Chicago Tribune" of 25 July 1890:-
'New York, July 2 - Among the names on the passenger list of the White Star steamship
Teutonic, which sailed from this port Wednesday, appeared that of a Mr. R. Boyle. This plain
Mr. R. Boyle was the missing Viscount Boyle, now (because of the death of the old Earl) Earl of
Shannon of County Cork, Ireland. Lord Boyle, or Earl [of] Shannon, as he is now called, is an
eccentric young man with a decidedly interesting history. At the age of 22, just seven years
ago, the young Viscount left his home to seek his fortune in the far Northwest. He is a young
man of a decidedly roving disposition, democratic in his tastes, fond of outdoor sports, and
equally fond, as it would appear, of indulging in what is known in this country as high rolling.
His Lordship landed on these shores about seven years ago, with unbounded ambition, a
pocketful of money, and a general desire to have a good time so far as circumstances would
permit. After thoroughly "doing" this city in company with other kindred spirits, his Lordship
went to a ranch in Montana and engaged in the delectable pursuit of "punching" cattle and
waging a sportsmanlike warfare upon the wild denizens of the great North-western forests
and streams.
'Nor was the pursuit of politics forgotten in the land of his adoption. A real, live Irish Lord
was a person to command respect, and Lord Boyle was, therefore, elected a member of the
Legislature. He served a term with great credit to himself and to the unbounded satisfaction
of his constituents. [Burke's Peerage states that he served as a member of the Canadian
Parliament, but in reality he appears to have been a member of the Northwest Territories 
'Lord Boyle was next heard of in Victoria, B.C. There, according to accounts published in the
papers at the time, he appears to have led a rather fast life. Then his Lordship suddenly
disappeared, and from that time - over two years ago - until within the last week he had not
been heard from.  As his Lordship had not written home since his departure, over seven years
ago, it is not to be wondered at that his relatives were worried by his erratic and wayward
'Then came all sorts of conflicting reports as to where Lord Boyle had hidden himself. One
gentleman who claimed to know located the missing nobleman in the diamond fields of
South Africa. Others had met his Lordship digging for golden nuggets in the mines of Alaska,
while not a few were positive that he gone to the Bengal jungles to wrestle with the tigers
and huge-eared elephants. After speculating upon his Lordship's whereabouts until the four
quarters of the globe had become exhausted, it was determined to call the young man dead
as the best and only means of disposing of the matter. Like Stanley, therefore, Lord Boyle
was killed in various ways. From this time on his Lordship died, at intervals, all manner of
'Of course when the old Earl of Shannon, Lord Boyle's father, died some months ago and the
missing Lord had himself become the Earl, it became a matter of some moment either that
this much killed young man should be brought to life or that the fact of his death should be
well established. For this purpose Lord Boyle's brother Henry came to this country soon after
the Earl's death and scoured the great Northwest on the trail of his missing relative, but
finding no trace, returned disheartened to this city. The brother's search, however, was not
altogether futile, for a telegram was received two weeks ago from Idaho from the missing
man, stating that he was alive and well and would shortly arrive in New York. Closely 
following the telegram came the young Earl himself, bronzed and weather-beaten as a Sioux
Indian, but a splendid specimen of physical health and robust manhood. The new Earl of
Shannon remained quietly in this city for a few days and then as plain R. Boyle left with his
brother for home.'
The special remainder to the Barony of Sheffield created in 1783
From the "London Gazette" of 16 September 1783 (issue 12476, page 1):-
'The King has been pleased to order Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the
Kingdom of Ireland, containing His Majesty's Grant of the Dignity of a Baron of that Kingdom to
the Right Honourable John Lord Sheffield, and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten, by 
the Name, Stile and Title of Baron Sheffield of Roscommon, in the County of Roscommon, in the
said Kingdom, with Remainders severally to his eldest Daughter the Honourable Maria Holroyd,
and to his youngest Daughter the Honourable Louisa Holroyd, and the respective Heirs Male of
their Bodies lawfully begotten.'
James Petty, styled Viscount Dunkerron, son of the Earl of Shelburne (creation of 1719)
(c 1708-17 Sep 1750)
Although the Earl of Shelburne's entry in Wikipedia states that there were no children from the 
Earl's marriage, there were at least three sons, two of whom died young, while the youngest 
son, James Petty, who was styled Viscount Dunkerron after his father had been promoted to
an earldom, predeceased his father by seven months. In his younger days, while on the Grand 
Tour, Dunkerron appeared to have been in the wrong place at the wrong time, with the wrong
companions. The following is taken from a pamphlet published in 1732:-
'A brief Narrative of the Unhappy Affair which happened at the City of Tours in France to the
Lord Viscount Dunkeron.........
'The Misfortune which happened to four Natives and Subjects of Great Britain, at the City of 
Tours in France, on the 20th of November last N[ew] S[tyle] being the Anniversary of the Feast
of St. Andrew, the Tutelar [i.e. guardian or protector] of Scotland, being likely to make a great
Noise in the World, and perhaps be liable to many Misrepresentations, to the Prejudice of the
Unfortunate Gentlemen, and their Relations and Friends; it has been thought not improper to
give the Publick a true and concise Account of that unhappy Affair.
'The Lord Viscount Dunkeron, only [surviving] Child to the Right Honourable Henry Petty of
High Wicomb, in the County of Bucks, Baron and Earl of Shelburne in the Kingdom of Ireland, a
Youth of about Nineteen Years old, being abroad on his Travels, in the Province of Tourain,
where he was to improve himself in the French Tongue; and after a Proficiency therein, to 
proceed to several Courts in Italy; happened to fall into Company with Mr. Hamilton, a Scots
Gentleman, Nephew of the late Colonel Hamilton, who was Second to Duke Hamilton [sic], in
the memorable Duel between his Grace and Lord Mohun [qv] in Hyde Park, who was likewise
going for Italy. The young Lord finding Mr. Hamilton an agreeable Companion, took a great
liking to his Conversation, and they kept together till they came to the City of Tours, about
115 Miles South-West from Paris.
'Here they found Mr. Kinnersly, a young Gentleman of about £1500 per Ann. Estate in England,
Brother to the Lady of Sir John Frederick of Pall-mall Bart., and Mr. Stuart, a Scots gentleman
of about £300 per Ann. in the Shire of Fife: They all became acquainted, and made frequent
Visits to each other.
'On the 20th of November, Mr. Hamilton presented all the Gentlemen with Crosses, to be worn
in honour of St. Andrew, and invited them to an Entertainment at a Tavern. Mr. Kinnersly being
out of order, seemed unwilling to go; but being at last overcome with the Importunities of his
Companions, acquiesced. Towards the Evening, when they were all greatly heated with Wine, 
Mr. Hamilton desired leave to send for two Scots Gentlemen [of] his Acquaintance, who heard 
were in the City of Tours; and being inform'd of their Lodgings, said he would go himself, and 
give them a formal Invitation, in the Name of the Company. The others desired the Master of 
the Tavern might be sent with the Compliment, but Mr. Hamilton would not permit it, and went 
himself. As he was passing thro' the Street, one Maurepate, by some called a Frenchman, and 
by others an Italian, but allowed by all to be a Chevalier de Industry, insulted him as he went 
along, on account of the Cross he wore in his Hat, and gave him a Jostle against the Wall. Mr.
Hamilton, resenting this Usage, drew his Sword, and bid the Fellow prepare, which he did by
likewise drawing his Sword. After several violent Passes, Maurepate was ran into the Belly, and
Mr. Hamilton received two Wounds, one in the Sword Arm, and the other in the Left Shoulder;
and asking his Antagonist, if he had enough, the other continued the Engagement, till he
received several more Wounds, and was then carried off to the Tavern, where Lord Dunkeron,
and the other Gentlemen were drinking, and there expired in about an Hour.
'The Populace assembled in great Numbers about the House, so that the whole City was soon in 
an Uproar. The young Lord, and his Companions came down Stairs, not knowing what had
happened, and drew their Swords to defend themselves from the Insults of the Rabble. Mr.
Hamilton was not to be found, having that Instant got Post-Horses, and was gone to the Earl
Waldegrave [British Ambassador to France 1730-1740] in Paris, to give his Excellency an 
Account of what had happened. Mr. Kinnersly being unhappily intoxicated with Wine, could not
be prevented from going into the Room where the Corpse lay, though Lord Dunkeron and Mr.
Stuart, did all they were capable of, to hinder him. However the Master of the Tavern found
means to convey his Three Guests out of the House, to their Lodgings; but as Lord Dunkeron
and Mr. Kinnersly were undressing, the Seneschal came with a Guard, and arrested them both,
on a Charge of being accessories to the Death of Maurepate. Mr. Stuart was not found till
fourteen Hours later, and then was taken fast asleep in his Bed. They were carried before the
Presidial, who after an Examination, which lasted Eight Hours, committed them all Prisoners to
the Castle.
'The Lord Dunkeron dispatched an Express to his Aunt, the Lady Ikerine [Ikerrin], in London; the
Earl of Shelburne, his Father, being in Ireland: and Mr. Kinnersly wrote by the same Channel, to
his Relations, to acquaint them with this Misfortune.
'Mr. Hamilton having waited on the Earl Waldegrave, at Paris, and desired Protection, his 
Excellency told him he could not grant his an Asylum, in regard to the Strictness of the French 
Laws against Duelling; whereupon he immediately fled to Holland, after two very narrow Escapes
of being taken, before he had got out of the Territories of France.
'The English Ambassador being acquainted with the Circumstances attending this unhappy Affair,
immediately went to Court to desire an Order to be sent to the City of Tours, for the 
Proceedings to be staid, and such other Indulgences granted as were consistent with the Laws
of the Kingdom, and his most Christian Majesty's Goodness to Foreigners of their Condition, who
had made the Tour of his Dominions from no other Motive, than that of a polite Curiosity, and 
of improving themselves in the French Language; to the end they might be enabled to write to
their Relations and Friends, in England, for Advice and Assistance.
'His Majesty, our most Gracious Sovereign King George, having been humbly acquainted with
this Case, hath, as we are credibly informed, been graciously pleased to write a Letter, with his
own Hand, to the most Christian King, in Behalf of these Gentlemen, and the whole Court hath
been sensibly moved with the News of this Misfortune.
'Large Remittances have been made to Lord Dunkeron, and Mr. Kinnersly, with Bills of Credit, on 
some of the most considerable Merchants, and others, in the South of France, to assist them 
with whatever shall be found necessary to extricate them out of this Difficulty; and their 
Relations and Friends, in London, are inconsolable, in that it hath happened at so remote a
Distance, and in a Country whose Laws, particularly with respect to Duels and Rencounters,
differ so widely from our own.
'It is said the French Court have sent Orders for the Proceedings to be staid, till his Majesty's
further Pleasure be known; and, that if any had been had, the English Gentlemen may Appeal
from them to the Parliament of Paris.'
Robert Lowe, 1st and only Viscount Sherbrooke
The following biography, which concentrates on Lowe's period in Australia, appeared in the
February 1955 issue of the Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
'By one of those curious whims of nature, Robert Lowe was born an albino, of lily-white skin,
Arctic-blond hair, and weak pink eyes. But if he looked like an overgrown Angora rabbit, he had
the tongue of an asp and the belligerence of a wild bull elephant. At the age of 31 he was told
he might soon be blind and probably dead; so he came to Australia to make a quick bid for 
fortune and retire. Instead, he threw himself into the colony's fight for self-government and in 
the seven years he lived here, between 1842 and 1850, became embroiled in more fights than
most men encounter in a lifetime. 
'Surviving at least two duels by men stung to fury by his caustic tongue as a member of the first
Legislative Council, Lowe returned to England to achieve the Chancellorship of the Exchequer
under Gladstone, a peerage as Viscount Sherbrooke and the distinction of being one of the most
remarkable personalities of his day - defying death and the doctors to live to the ripe old age of
'It was at Bingham, Notts, on December 4, 1811, that Robert Lowe's blood-red eyes first gazed
upon the world. His father was a land-owning, fox­hunting rector there, and Robert was the 
second son, and the fourth of seven children. An elder sister, Elizabeth, was also an albino.
Because of this aberration and the delicate eyesight that accompanied it, he was not sent to
a public school (Winchester) until he was 14, and he was 22 before he graduated at Oxford. He
gained a distinguished pass, however, with a first in classics and a second in mathematics. He
would have gained a first in the latter, also, so his friends maintained, had his poor eyesight
not required him to put his face so close to the paper that his nose rubbed out half the answers.
'He settled temporarily to tutoring, until in 1835 he won a fellowship at Magdalen College. That
same year he became engaged to a Georgiana Orred and announced to his father that he had
decided to become a barrister. Parental consent and cash were withheld from both projects.
Nevertheless Robert married his Georgiana in March, 1836, and bought a small house at Oxford.
He continued on with his tutoring, but at the same time drove his weak eyes to pore over law
books. He was called to the Bar in January, 1842, but the hard work had taken toll of his eyes,
and tormenting headaches and indifferent general health drove him to consult three specialists.
Their verdict was unanimous: seven more years of eyesight and then complete blindness. They
advised him for his health's sake to go to Australia. Robert talked the prospect over with
Georgiana, and together they decided that in Australia he might reasonably hope to make a 
quick fortune, upon which, together with her income, he would be able to retire.
'They sailed in June, 1842, and arrived in Sydney four months later. The Governor was then Sir
George Gipps, and his wife was a relative of Georgiana's. After a fortnight's stay in the vice-
regal residence at Parramatta, the Lowes took up house in Macquarie Street, and Lowe settled
to what he called "the wretched trade of an advocate." For the first three months all went well,
although he suffered greatly from the glaring Sydney sunlight. Then a local doctor, claiming that 
tic douloureux [trigeminal neuralgia - a very painful disease] and not merely congenital defic-
iency of the eyes threatened his life as well as his eyesight, forbade him the use of his eyes 
'Lowe thought of returning to England, but as 1843 wore on he decided in desperation to forget
all about doctor's orders, to nurse his eyesight as much as possible, but to continue his original
plan of working at the Bar. A little later he adopted blinkers, dark goggles which hooded his eyes
and admitted only pencil points of light. Gradually he began to get the "feel" of things in the
colony of New South Wales, which then included Port Phillip (Victoria) and Moreton Bay
'The year he arrived the colonists had been granted a measure of representative government
under a new constitution establishing a Legislative Council of 36 members - 24 of them elected
representatives and the other 12 Crown nominees and Government officials. The Governor,
however, retained the power of veto over any decision of the Council, and Gipps was opposed 
to the elected representatives' demands for responsible government and upheld the English 
Colonial Office's right to supreme authority. At the end of 1843 Gipps appointed Lowe one of his 
Crown nominees to the Council to "strengthen the Government" against the demands of the 
popular members. 
'Lowe's success in the Council helped to advance his prestige at the Bar, although he never
reached the rank of Richard Windeyer [1806-1847], or [Sir] Archibald Michie [1813-1899] [two
of Sydney's leading barristers at the time]. The one trial by which he is remembered today was
his defence of John Knatchbull, accused of the murder of the widowed Mrs. Jamieson. He was
unsuccessful, but his defence was some 100 years ahead of its time - a suit for an acquittal on
the grounds of moral insanity. [For further details see the note under the Knatchbull baronetcy].
The trial had results of personal importance. He and his wife were childless and adopted the
two small orphaned children of the murdered widow, Mary [other sources name her as Polly] and 
Bobby Jamieson. The girl died soon after the Lowes returned to England, while Bobby lived to a 
restless, troublesome adulthood, and caused his foster parents endless misery before he died 
in an insane asylum.
'For a time Lowe was a faithful ally of the Government in the Legislative Council, upholding the
supreme infallibility of Whitehall, and few others in the Council could match his classic oratory
or caustic wit. It was during this period that he made a reference in debate considered a
personal affront by an Elderman Macdermott and a Captain Moore, who called upon him next
day in his chambers in Elizabeth Street demanding that he make an immediate apology or "state
a time and place." Lowe refused to do either, claiming his right to freedom of speech in the 
Council, and ordered them out of his chambers with some biting references to the effect that
only gentlemen could have any honour to avenge, adding that in any case it was beneath his
dignity to fight with those not his social equal. To add indignity to insult, he had them bound
over to keep the peace and aired the whole affair in the Council by pressing for a prosecution.
Public opinion was against him, however, and for a time he was the most unpopular man in the
'The affair eventually blew over, and Lowe's popularity was recovered, at least in part, when he
pressed for an inquiry to draw up recommendations for improvements in education. At the same
time he began to favour the colony's claims for more representative government, and towards
the end of 1844 he resigned as a nominee of the after supporting the establishment of a 
separate colony for the area round Port Phillip (later constituted as Victoria.)
'He fell back on journalism as a sideline to law, and put out the first number of "Atlas," a "weekly
journal of politics, commerce and literature," in November, 1844. It became immediately popular
because of its advocacy of representative government and the wit of Lowe's satirical skits and
epigrams. Within six months he had become as popular as he had previously been unpopular,
and in April, 1845, he was returned to the Council as an elected member.
'Shortly afterwards he broke with [William Charles] Wentworth and the "squattocracy" over the
land question. He was accused of betrayal, but Lowe was evidently sincere in his detestation
of a land monopoly such as the squatters had secured from the English Ministry. Not only did it
thwart the hopes of immigrants wanting "room to live in," he said, but it frustrated the only
means by which the colony could settle people on the land and so establish a genuine 
'Before the issue was settled, Gipps retired and was succeeded as Governor by Sir Charles
FitzRoy. In England W. E. Gladstone, the new Colonial Secretary, began suggesting the revival
of transportation as a means of overcoming financial depression in the colony. There was an
immediate public outcry against the move; but the squatting interests were jubilant at the 
at the prospect of free labour. Then, out of the blue, in 1849, the convict ship 'Hashemy' arrived 
in Sydney with 250 convicts aboard. The Sydney colonists collected at Circular Quay in a
spontaneous meeting of protest, to which Lowe repaired. It was a day of drenching rain, but the
crowd ignored the downpour as Lowe harangued them with fiery phrases. A deputation to the
Governor headed by Lowe had some results. Eventually some of the convicts were permitted to
land, but they were sent "up country" while the majority were pushed on by sea to Moreton Bay.
It was some years before transportation ceased, but these public meetings of protest gave the
death-blow to the system. 
'Towards the end of 1849 his wife's health and her constant wish to return to England decided 
Lowe to leave the colony, and they sailed with their young Jamieson charges on January 27, 
1850. He resumed practice at the Bar in England, and in April 1851, joined 'The Times' as a
leader-writer. He was elected Liberal Member for Kidderminster the following year and politics
thereafter were his main preoccupation until the end of his life.
'For more than 30 years he played major roles in British politics, as Secretary of the Board of
Control, Vice-President of the Board of Trade, President of the Board of Health, Minister for
Education and Chancellor of the Exchequer. In this sphere he reverted to the upholding of
established government, and he opposed any extension of voting rights.
'Tall Bobby Lowe, of the white hair and witty tongue, became one of the best-known figures
in English public life. In 1880 his ability and service were rewarded with a peerage. As Viscount
Sherbrooke he devoted more time to his small estate in Surrey and less to politics, as his health
at last began to fail. Georgiana died in 1884 and the following year he married again. It was not
until 1892 that he, too, died, at Warlingham in Surrey.'
For many years, even after his death, a section of the Australian public believed that Lord
Sherbrooke and his ward, Polly or Mary Jamieson, had eventually married. The following article,
written by D[avid] B[lair] [1820-1899] was published in "The Australasian" on 24 September
1892, two months after Sherbrooke's death. Though no names are mentioned, it is obvious that 
the article refers to Sherbrooke. Unfortunately, the turgidity of its prose is only exceeded by its
inaccuracies as to the fate of the Jamieson girl. First, the article as it was published:-
'An incident in the domestic history of an English nobleman recently deceased, at one time a
distinguished Australian colonist, affords a very striking illustration of the inexhaustible mines
of romance that lie beneath the prosaic surface of everyday life. It is not befitting to mention
the names of the actors in this singularly strange story, but the certainty of the facts admits
of no question.
'On a Saturday night more than forty years ago there was perpetrated in the city of Sydney
a murder which excited unusual interest in the public mind. A poor widow, who kept a shop in
one of the by-streets of the city, was making up her returns for the day when suddenly there
entered a man, who had been watching her movements through the window, and, rushing
behind the counter, he felled her to the ground by a blow from a heavy bludgeon, rifled the
till she had been emptying and then fled into the night, leaving his victim dead upon the floor.
'When the crime was discovered shortly afterwards by a neighbour the alarm was given, and
the police were speedily on the alert. Their suspicions fell on a ticket-of-leave man, who was
known to be of a reckless, desperate character, and was on that account kept under 
surveillance. A careful searching of his well-known haunts dragged him forth into the light in
circumstances that warranted his apprehension. The customary sequence of criminal procedure
led up to his arraignment and conviction. He was sentenced to death and hanged. Respecting
this unnamed villain it needs only to be added that he was an Englishman of noble family, a
gentleman by social position and education; that a nephew of his sits at this moment in the
House of Lords as a peer of the realm; and that amongst the black battalions of convicts whom
Great Britain exiled from her shores to the southern world for over sixty years no more 
consummate villain ever landed in Botany Bay.
'The widow left an orphan, a girl about ten years old. This child was naturally taken in charge
by the Government, and placed in the keeping of a respectable woman until some means could
be found of permanently providing for her education and maintenance. But it happened that
the gentleman who acted as Crown prosecutor in the murder case, married and childless, was
strongly moved with sympathetic pity for this hapless waif of humanity, and the feeling led him
to take a personal interest in the steps taken for her guardianship. At that early period there
existed no institution in Sydney in the nature of an orphanage or asylum for destitute children;
and such Government as then existed was in no degree disposed to take upon itself the charge
of providing for such innocent victims of an adverse fate. So much the more keenly were the
compassionate sympathies of the Crown prosecutor evoked on the girl's behalf. He consulted
a colleague at the bar - a man of finely benevolent feelings and exalted character - on the
matter. He held conferences with the Colonial Secretary. He turned the question over in his
own mind anxiously and frequently. Finally he took family council with his wife upon it. The good
lady, it appears, had herself been deeply considering the sad fortunes of the orphan. Her
impulses of pure benevolence prompted her to make to her husband the very proposal which 
now he was more than hinting to her. They agreed that this episode in their domestic experience
took the aspect of a plain indication of a Providential duty, not to be evaded without incurring
serious moral responsibility. So the point was settled. The girl should come to them, and they
should thenceforward stand towards her as her parents. To this proposal the Government
willingly assented. The orphan, protected by a pitying Providence, had thus found friends, 
parents, and a home.
'It was a change in her social conditions for the girl, almost as strange as that which the fairy
godmother's transforming power wrought for Cinderella in the nursery tale. Her new guardian
was a man of very high distinction, both from his family connections in the old country and from
his splendid intellectual gifts. An unusually brilliant career at his English university had made his
name familiar in the highest circles of culture and refinement. He was a fellow of his college
until his marriage, and a tutor of high classical renown. A born orator, a man of wide and varied
learning, possessed of a strikingly handsome face and figure, he was eminently calculated to
shine in society, and to win the most coveted prizes in professional and political life. Some event
in his career had induced him, upon his marriage, to turn his eyes to the new world in the south
as a promising sphere for his talents, and as opening up wide prospects for future advancement
and wealth. On his arrival in New South Wales he was at once recognised as a first class power
in every department of public life. But circumstances, partly of a personal and partly of a public
nature, led him to see what the colonies, as then situated, were not the best sphere of
usefulness that he could find, and in the course of a few years he went back to England. The
orphan, being now fairly installed as daughter of the house, accompanied the family.
'Arrived in England, the ex-Crown prosecutor retook instantly his old place in society. His
former friends and companions gathered round him. Lucrative positions were offered, avenues
of professional advancement were thrown open. He selected journalism as his profession, and
was immediately enrolled on the staff of The Times. Here his powerful and trenchant articles
attracted all men's attention, and it was felt that the writer of such articles - the other need
for qualifications being present - would be a potent factor in practical politics. Mingling freely
in society with the leading men of both parties, it was the most natural thing in the world that
he should be thought to be the very man to join those of his own side in politics, and to aid in
guiding them on to still other victories. In due time a seat in the House of Commons was gained
by sheer dint of superior mental and moral force. Once within its walls he took rank as an orator
and debater. Men saw in him a future Minister of the Crown. Accordingly, when the party to
which he belonged won in a great Parliamentary battle he was installed in a high post in the 
Cabinet, and so became one of the advisers of the Crown.
'In the meantime the adopted girl was being brought up as an English lady of the best rank and
standing. Her education was exactly the same as that of a daughter born in the household. By
the time that her school days were over, and she was of age to go forth into society, she made
her debut amongst the circles of West End fashionable existence as the acknowledged daughter
of Her Majesty's Chancellor of the Exchequer.
'A prolonged career of distinguished political activity for the now celebrated statesman followed.
As he advanced in years so did his honours increase. At length he gained his elevation to the
peerage, and entered the House of Lords with the rank of a viscount. But by this time age had
begun to tell upon him. His splendid powers were visibly failing. People said of him that he was
an eclipsed meteor - an extinct volcano. But nature is supreme and despotic, and it is nature's
decree that a man shall not be as vigorously active and as intellectually brilliant at three score
and ten as he was at forty. In his domestic life he was blessed above most men. His devoted
wife gave herself to the one sole object of serving and tending her husband, in the truest
spirit of wifely heroism. Her assiduous care was as heroically sustained by the devotion of a
loving and grateful daughter, now grown to mature womanhood. So that when, in due course
of nature, the faithful wife was taken to her rest, the daughter's tender nursing care had 
become essential and indispensable to the feeble, but still noble, old gentleman. Propriety
required that an intimacy so close as his extremely frail and dependent condition demanded
should have a still more sacred sanction than even that of filial adoption. So, after a proper
interval, a formal marriage was celebrated, and the once desolate orphan of Sydney had her
name entered in the pages of Debrett, and took her station amongst the nobility as an English
Notwithstanding the fact that D.B.'s version of events had been widely believed in Australia
for some time, the "Burrowa News" of 20 January 1893 reported that:-
'In "The Australasian" of September 24 appeared an article by ("D.B") David Blair, telling the
story of the murder by Knatchbull, in Sydney, in the forties, and stating that the daughter of
the woman he killed (Mrs. Jamieson) was adopted by the counsel who defended the prisoner,
subsequently becoming the counsel's second wife many years afterwards, and so attaining a
place in the peerage. Though no names were given, obviously Mr. Lowe, afterward Lord 
Sherbrooke, was meant. A Sydney correspondent wrote throwing doubts on the romantic
conclusion of the story, and pointing out that the peer's second wife was not a Miss Jamieson.
He has since communicated with Lady Sherbrooke who has replied as follows:- "Dear Sir - the
little girl Jamieson, who was taken charge of by Mr and Mrs Lowe after the murder of her 
mother, died in London when she was about 13. I am glad to be able to answer your question
at once. Yours faithfully, C. SHERBROOKE." The Sydney correspondent is a member of the
Legislative Council. Strange to say the story told by "D.B." is one that has been current in
Australia for many years. It is now shown to be no more than a romantic myth.'
Elizabeth ("Bess") Hardwick, wife of George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury
The following biography, in which I have amended certain areas in the interests of accuracy,
appeared in the June 1967 issue of the Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
'Young Bess Hardwick, daughter of John Hardwick, a financially insecure gentleman of England,
was not only physically attractive, but was an amazingly good cook and housekeeper. The
delectable "beres, broths and jellies" she concocted despite the limited kitchen expenses she
was allowed, never ceased to amaze her parents, her other sisters and their few guests. But
while Bess scrimped and saved and wrote up her kitchen accounts neatly and accurately, she
took some time off to do a little scheming. 
With her ivory-like skin shining with sweat and her light amber hair dishevelled as she worked
over the oven, she vowed that one day she would rise above her environment and win a place
of affluence among the nobles who treated her family with disdain or pity. And Bess Hardwick,
making the most of her cooking and business skills as well as her attractive face and figure,
achieved her ambition with a vengeance. Going through four fabulously rich husbands, she
inherited their estates and ended her life as the wealthiest woman in England.
'The story of Elizabeth Hardwick, the most successful gold-digger of 16th century England,
began in about 1518 when she was born to John and Elizabeth Hardwick at Hardwick Hall,
Derbyshire. Bess was 14 when a family friend, Lady Zouche, told Bess's parents the girl needed
a holiday in London, The parents agreed and the pair set out for Lady Zouche's London 
residence. Staying with Lady Zouche at that time was an eccentric and aged gentleman, a man 
of exceedingly poor health and excessively vast estates. Among the dying man's estates was a
great tract of land that made him possibly the richest landowner in Bess's native county of
Derbyshire. When Lady Zouche cajoled her into becoming the old man's nurse, she retired to the
kitchen and began preparing him an endless stream of her best dishes.
'The result was that Barlow's health began to improve. In fact it improved so startlingly that he
began casting passionate eyes on his youthful nurse. Bess wasted no time in unnecessary 
courting. She persuaded Barlow to make out a will in her favour and, not long after her 15th 
birthday, led her tottering old groom to the altar. Barlow managed to survive his nuptial day 
for a few months. Then he died. The 15-year-old Bess was now a widow possessing vast 
wealth. [This story is totally at odds with other sources, which state that Barlow was a
sickly teenager. In any event, the outcome was the same - his early death left Bess a very
wealthy woman].
'Although she had sufficient assets to keep her in luxury for the rest of her life, Bess did not
rest on her laurels. She began looking around for another wealthy husband, this time one with
a noble title. Her great wealth making a hasty remarriage unnecessary, she bided her time.
Indeed she had waited 3 years when Sir William Cavendish [c 1505-1557], who had already
outlived two wives, came into her sights.
'Cavendish had inherited from his father, Clerk of the Pipe in the Exchequer, tremendous land
holdings in Suffolk. He was also a financial adviser to King Henry VIII. When Henry broke with
the Pope and the State confiscated church property in England, William was given the task of
taking over the monasteries. He performed this duty so efficiently and expeditiously that Henry
rewarded him by handing over to him valuable slices of this nationalised property.
'Bess and Cavendish were married at the unlikely hour of 2 am on August 20, 1547. Following
the nuptials, the celebrations rollicked on for 24 hours before the exhausted couple retired to
their bed chamber. Although six children were born during the next 10 years [actually eight,
two of whom died in infancy], she found time to persuade her husband to join with her in the
purchase of valuable real estate. In that time Bess and her husband bought not only her old
family estate in Derbyshire, but built several mansions, some of which survive. At Chatsworth
she built the mighty palace and ducal residence that became [and remains] one of England's
'In October 1557 Cavendish died, leaving Bess engulfed in assets. In fact, even at this stage
of her life she was regarded as one of England's wealthiest women. Her widowhood also made
her the most eligible. It was not long after this second bereavement that she met Sir William
Saint Lo, the handsome captain of Queen Elizabeth's personal guard. He was also Grand Butler
of England and the owner of extensive estates. 
'Bess could see only one impediment to a successful marriage - Saint Lo already had a large
batch of daughters by a former wife. This meant, she knew, that in the event of his death she
must divide his estate with the daughters. She solved the problem by assuring him they could
never marry unless his will specified her as the sole heir. Falling for the bait, Saint Lo agreed.
Three months after the wedding Saint Lo died peacefully following a short illness. 
'Bess was still officially in mourning when friends noticed she was being attended by George
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, and one of Queen Elizabeth's most valued advisers. Shrewsbury, a
nobleman of vast wealth, had found that the dual role of adviser to the Queen and manager of
his extensive estates was getting too much for him. In Bess he saw the answer to all his 
worries. She was rich and handled financial affairs better than most men. Also, he knew, she
was an excellent cook.
'The earl came up against the business woman in Bess when he first asked for her hand in
marriage. She said she would not consider it unless he settled a parcel of property worth
hundreds of thousands of pounds on her. Also, his youngest daughter, Grace, was to marry
Bess's eldest son, Henry Cavendish, while Gilbert Talbot, heir to the earldom, must marry Bess's
youngest daughter. The subsequent marriage between Shrewsbury and Bess caused the Queen
to heap praise on both parties. Of Bess, Elizabeth wrote: "There ys no Ladye yn thys land that
I beter love and lyke." 
'On May 17, 1568, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, landed in England a fugitive from her kingdom.
She was at once arrested by Elizabeth and, shortly afterwards, the Earl of Shrewsbury was
selected as Mary's gaoler, first in one then in another of his castles. The relationship between
Bess and her husband deteriorated rapidly from the day Mary was put in their care and within a
few months they were openly abusing each other.
'Bess began intriguing with Mary, at the same time accusing her husband of being their prisoner's
lover. Then one day it was learned that the Countess of Lennox, mother of Charles Stuart [Earl
of Lennox of the 1572 creation], would be passing the Shrewsbury mansion, Rufford, when Bess
was in residence. So Bess arranged to have the lady invited into Rufford. There she lavished
hospitality on her guest and managed to induce the countess to stay over for a few days. The
reason for her graciousness was that the countess was travelling towards Scotland in search of
a wife for her son Charles, then fourth in line to the English throne.
The Countess of Shrewsbury's plans hinged on the hope that one of her daughters might impress
the Countess of Lennox as a future daughter-in-law. When Charles Stuart and Elizabeth 
Cavendish later met, love was immediate. Less than a week after that meeting the pair was
secretly married. When Shrewsbury heard of the match, he was delighted and wrote to his 
friend, Lord Burghley, the Queen's treasurer: "The young man is so far in love that belike he is
sick without her. This truly effected I shall be well at quiet for there are few noblemen's sons
in England that she (Bess) hath not prayed me to deal for at some time or another. And now
this comes unlooked for without thanks to me."
'But Queen Elizabeth did not take the marriage in the same spirit. Indeed she flew into a violent
because she believed such a close union with the family of Mary Queen of Scots was close to
treason. When the Queen issued orders demanding that the parties concerned must present
themselves before her in London, Shrewsbury protested that the marriage took place without
his consent. Thus he was allowed to remain out of the capital, but all others connected with
the marriage set out for London and the Queen's wrath. 
'Immediately the Countesses of Shrewsbury and Lennox entered the city they were arrested
and imprisoned in the Tower. While the Countess of Lennox complained that this was the third
time she had been in the Tower over love matters, the Countess of Shrewsbury busied herself
writing appeals for release to friends she thought could help her. In time, after promising the
that she would do her "reverent dutie," Bess returned to her husband, where she learned that
her daughter, the wife of Charles Stuart, had given birth to a child [Arbella, who was at one
time considered a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth. She eventually starved herself to
death in the Tower of London in 1615].
'By now there was no hope of reconciliation between Shrewsbury and his countess. Ultimately
Bess left her husband and went to live at Hardwick Hall, the home of her childhood and now a
part of her huge estates. In 1584 the Earl of Shrewsbury and 40 of his horsemen laid siege to
Chatsworth, which was successfully defended by Bess's sons Charles and William Cavendish.
Claiming the palace was his, Shrewsbury wrote to the Queen: "Why should my wife and her
servants rule me, making me the wife and she the husband?"
'But Elizabeth sided with Bess and ordered Shrewsbury to take her back and live with her.
Bitterly he carried out the order, but demanded back from his wife everything he had given
her. He was still trying to devise new ways of frustrating his wife when he died in 1590, a
bitter, frustrated old man.
'For the next 17 years Bess went on a building spree, sinking hundreds of thousands of pounds
into new castles and mansions and extending the old. In 1608, after seeing Chatsworth 
extended to massive proportions, a heavy frost forced the workmen who were building extra
wings on to Hardwick Hall to stop work for several days. And before they could get back to
the job the old countess was dead, leaving an estate practically unrivalled in Britain.'
Anna Maria Talbot [25 Mar 1642-20 Apr 1702], wife of Francis Talbot, 11th Earl 
of Shrewsbury
The following biography of the Countess of Shrewsbury appeared in the Australian monthly 
magazine "Parade" in its February 1955 issue:-
'As a sedan chair left St. James' Palace, London, one autumn night in the reign of Charles II, a
slim figure slipped stealthily from the shadows and, before the chair-men could intervene, thrust
a murderous sword three times through the side of the chair at the gallant within. The man who
leapt out clutching a bleeding arm was, however, curiously evasive in his answers to the watch-
men who pounded to the rescue. The sword thrusts, he privately suspected, were delivered by
a woman, and that could only mean that Anna Brudenell, Countess of Shrewsbury, had decided 
to dispense with him as a lover. Life, even without his beautiful red-headed mistress, was still 
sweet to Thomas Killigrew, most talkative man at court; so for the first time, he shut his mouth
tightly and made no accusations. 
'Men with far more courage than "Tom the Jester" had taken their dismissal passively. Though a
threat from Anna, "the Devil Countess," came from the most provocative lips of the Restoration
period, every word carried a promise of sudden death. Yet there was no shortage of men willing 
to play with the fire of Anna Brudenell's love. In the profligate court of the Merry Monarch,
competition for distinction in amour and intrigue ran high. At the age of 20, Anna had earned
undisputed leadership among the courtesans.
'The Devil Countess began life in 1638 as the Honourable Anna Maria Brudenell, daughter of the
second Earl of Cardigan. Few women less deserved the title "Honourable." From her fiery passage
through a fiery era, history records not a single word of praise for her. At 21 Anna was in full 
bloom of the beauty that was the downfall of every male. According to one description: "There
was in her round, fair visage, with its languishing eyes and full pouting mouth, something
voluptuous and bold." If she had a physical fault, it was apparent only to a Frenchman. The
Chevalier de Gramont thought she was slightly over-endowed with what he delicately called
"embonpoint" [i.e. plumpness] -a minor matter in the days of bustles and bows.
'She married Francis Talbot, the eleventh Earl of Shrewsbury when she was scarcely 21. Perhaps
her beauty was the bait, perhaps her extensive dowry. In either case, after a short period of
starry-eyed infatuation, the Earl went back to the placid life of a plodding middle-aged states-
man and left Anna to amuse herself as she liked - and her liking was love. Her first acknowledged
conquest at court was the handsome, dashing young Earl of Arran. Despite his immaturity he 
had built up a reputation as an experienced heartbreaker.
'Anna changed that. The Earl became a court joke, mooning around like a student who had 
learned too much too quickly. Oblivious of the sniggers, his eyes followed Anna wherever she
went. When she smiled, he smiled, when she frowned he was abjectly depressed. Tired of
such cloying devotion, Anna fluttered her eyelashes at her brother-in-law, Richard Talbot.
Talbot took the bait readily but proved to be more shark than minnow. He alone of Anna's lovers
dominated her and whipped her into line. In a few months he tired of her and cast her aside.
Worse, he kept the impassioned letters she wrote and presented them to his new mistress
cynically tied with a lock of Anna's hair. 
'When she met Colonel Thomas Howard, brother of the Earl of Carlisle, Anna's score stood at one
victory and one defeat on the field of love. Howard surrendered unconditionally. When, 
inevitably, she tired of him and cast eyes on Harry Jermyn, the colonel refused to be shaken off. 
He filled the air with unsoldierly blubbering and, when tears and pleading failed, threatened to 
confess details of the affair to her husband. The threat infuriated rather than alarmed her. The 
plot she laid to rid herself of the tiresome colonel was as twisted as her own nature. Harry [i.e. 
Henry Jermyn, later 3rd Baron Jermyn and 1st Baron Dover] - "the invincible Jermyn" - swords-
man, bully, and lady-killer, was to be the instrument of Howard's death. 
'Reassuring Howard of her love, she persuaded him to take her to supper in a Charing Cross
restaurant. She and the adoring Howard were tete-a-tete at a secluded table when, as pre-
arranged, Jermyn hove in sight. Anna invited him to join them. While Howard glowered, Jermyn
held Anna's hand and made such outrageous love to her that Howard had no choice but to 
challenge him to a duel. 
'Anna greeted the news joyfully. Those who had met Jermyn with swords had never left the
field on their feet. Howard was as good as dead, she believed. Jermyn chose for his second
Colonel Giles Rawlings. Howard was supported by the younger brother of Lord Dillon. As was
the custom, all four fought. Unfortunately for Anna's plans, the invincible Jermyn was
vulnerable. When the dust settled, he had a wound which kept him on his back for months,
while Colonel Rawlings died where he lay. In one way Anna's plan had succeeded - Howard
and his second who, according to rumour, had taken the precaution of wearing body armour -
fled the country. But her fine new lover, Jermyn, was a wreck.
'It was then that Anna's guttersnipe streak came uppermost. From the dozens of eligible and
willing men ready to come when she beckoned, she chose Thomas Killigrew [1612-1683], court
buffoon and professional funnyman. Killigrew, a mean-souled little gossip with a viperish tongue,
held his place at court by playing cruel, practical jokes which infuriated his victims and sent his
worthless audience into peals of laughter.
'He was the most unlikely-looking lover of the batch, yet there was something about the futile
little man that appealed to Anna's twisted nature. Elated and slightly incredulous at his fortune,
Tom the Jester could not resist using the affair in his trade of buffoon. Night after night he 
regaled the gentlemen of the court with prurient details of the affair. His harping on the theme
whetted the curiosity of George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, acknowledged No. 1 
romantic lover of his age. Anna threw no obstacles in the way of Buckingham's amorous
experiments. Evidently he found that Killigrew had not exaggerated, for Buckingham was soon
firmly on the hook. 
'Anna, however, learned from him that her boudoir secrets were rapidly becoming common
property to every rake at court and there was black murder in her heart. Her plan to dismiss
Killigrew was involved but effective. She persuaded him that to challenge Buckingham, a master
swordsman, to a duel, would be the greatest prank of his clownish career. Killigrew felt that the
duke would not soil a noble sword on a buffoon, but Anna was not so sure. Killigrew knew that
his position depended on getting laughs, so he agreed and thanked Anna for the suggestion.
Next night at the theatre he bandied insulting pleasantries with Buckingham, and when all eyes
were on them climbed into his box and struck him in the face with a stocking. Buckingham was
not amused. He cut the joker shrewdly across the seat of the breeches with a riding whip.
Killigrew swung from box to box crying: "Mercy, your Grace, mercy!" while the audience went
into paroxysms of mirth. Buckingham put an end to the farce by kicking the clown soundly. Next
day Killigrew went to Anna for applause. He got a cold reception. She had no intention of
consorting with a man who had been publicly kicked, she told him.
'Dismissed, Killigrew continued to publicise his knowledge of Anna. He should have known her
better. One night as his carriage turned into the drive of his house, a band of thugs wrenched
open the door, dragged out the occupant and killed him with a dozen sword thrusts. The 
woman's voice which exhorted the bravoes to "Kill the villain!" belonged to Anna. It was not her
her fault that the murdered man was not Killigrew but his unfortunate valet. Her next attempt,
delivered personally as his sedan chair left St. James's Palace, silenced the braggart. He left 
town hastily. 
'Anna and Buckingham were soul-mates. Both were entirely without morals and above the laws
that governed other people. They made no attempt at discretion and before long England and
the Continent rang with their tempestuous affair. They shared even their contempt for 
patriotism. On one of their trips to France they entered into a pact with Louis XIV to spy on
England, for which Anna received a pension of 10,000 livres. Between them they jockeyed
Charles II into selling Dunkirk and other British possessions to France.
'Only one thing marred their association - both had living spouses. Anna proposed to remedy
that in her usual way. Until then, the ageing Earl of Shrewsbury had given her a free rein in
her infidelities. She set her barbed tongue to work to break down his equanimity. All the world
knew he was a cuckold, she told him, and if he had a spark of family honour he would set 
matters right. With his family honour impugned, the Earl challenged Buckingham, finest swords-
man in the kingdom, to a duel with rapiers.
'Not satisfied with engineering her husband's death, Anna insisted on seeing the deed
accomplished. On the appointed morning [16 Jan 1668] she dressed herself as a page and rode
to Barn Elms, the duelling ground. She held her lover's horse while he fought a duel which was 
no more than murder, for the stout, ageing Earl received no mercy from Buckingham. With her 
husband writhing on the ground with a mortal chest wound, Anna threw herself into her lover's
arms oblivious of his bloodstained shirt. Wet with the blood of the murdered man, the couple
carried on a love scene that sickened even the hardened bravoes. The Earl lingered for two
months [dying on 16 March], but his house was closed to Anna. She moved in with Buckingham,
who ordered his own duchess to return to her father, while Charles II set the seal of royal
approval on the sordid affair by granting Buckingham a palpably illegal "divorce."
'The cold-blooded killing, however, was the turning point both in the career of the Devil 
Countess and of Buckingham, to whom she bore a son. Their popularity wilted under public
disapproval and it was then that the Shrewsbury clan dragged the pair into court and
established the flagrant illegality of the Buckingham divorce. Buckingham returned to his wife
and was forgiven; Anna Brudenell, still young, dropped from sight.
'Twice before her death in 1702, she emerged from obscurity. At 38 she married the son of a 
Somersetshire knight, years her junior [George Rodney Brydges]. A little later the Devil Countess
lived up to her name, when she lured her son [by Buckingham] into an ill-timed Jacobean plot
against William III. Her advice almost cost the boy his head. With this indiscretion, one of the
wickedest women faded from history.'
Ferdinando Marquis de Paleotti, brother of the Duchess of Shrewsbury
Charles Talbot, 1st and only Duke of Shrewsbury, married at Rome, 20 August 1705, Adelaide,
daughter of Andrew, Marquis Palleotti, of Bologna in Italy. There are conflicting stories
regarding the marriage, with many contemporaries believing that the Duke had been bullied
into marrying her by her two brothers, one of whom earned his own entry in the "Newgate
Calendar," as follows:-
'THE MARQUIS DE PALEOTTI An Italian Nobleman, executed at Tyburn for the Murder of his
Servant, 17th of March, 1718.
'This nobleman was the head of a noble family in Italy, and was brought to a disgraceful death
through the vice of gambling, with all the aggravated horrors of suffering in a strange country;
thus doubly disgracing the honours of his house.
'Ferdinando Marquis de Paleotti was born at Bologna. In the reign of Queen Anne he was a 
colonel in the Imperial army. Quitting the army at the Peace of Utrecht [1713], he visited 
England to see his sister; and being fond of an extravagant course of life, and attached to 
gaming, he soon ran into debt for considerable sums. His sister paid his debts for some time, till
she found it would be a burdensome and endless task; and she therefore declined all further
interference. Though she declined to assist him as usual, he continued his former course of life
till he was imprisoned for debt; but his sister privately procured his liberty, and he was 
discharged without knowing who had conferred the favour on him. The habits of the Marquis,
however, were in nowise changed, and one day, while walking in the street, he directed his
servant, an Italian, to go and borrow some money. The servant, having met with frequent
denials, declined going; on which the Marquis drew his sword and killed him on the spot. He was
instantly apprehended and committed to prison and being tried at the next sessions was 
convicted on full evidence, and received sentence of death. But the Duke of Shrewsbury, his
sister's husband, being dead, and the Duchess having little interest or acquaintance in England,
it appears that no endeavours were used to save him from the punishment which awaited him,
and he was executed at Tyburn, on the 17th of March, 1718. Italian pride had taken deep root
in the mind of this man. He declared it to be disgraceful to this country to put a nobleman to
death, like a common malefactor, for killing his servant; and lamented that our churches, as in
Italy, did not offer a sanctuary for murderers. Englishmen, however, are thankful that neither
of this Marquis' desires prevail in their country, where the law makes no distinction in offenders.
To the last moment the pride of aristocracy was predominant in his mind. He petitioned the
sheriffs that his body should not be defiled by touching the unhappy Englishmen doomed to
suffer with him, and that he might die before them, and alone. The sheriffs, in courtesy to a
stranger, granted this request, and thus, in his last struggle, he maintained the superiority of
his rank. Vain man! of what avail were his titles in the presence of the Almighty?'
The Great Shrewsbury Case of 1857-1858
On the death of the unmarried 17th Earl of Shrewsbury in 1856 at the age of 23, the Earldom
(which is the Premier Earldom of England) was claimed by a distant cousin, Henry John 
Chetwynd-Talbot, 3rd Earl Talbot of Hensol. The claim also affected the possession of vast
estates which had been bequeathed to Lord Edmund Howard, the infant 2nd son of the 14th 
Duke of Norfolk (and later 1st Viscount Fitzalan of Derwent). The property would become vested
in Lord Edmund if the title of the Earl of Shrewsbury, to which the property was annexed by an
Act of Parliament, was found to have become extinct. The question of the property is dealt with
separately in this note.
Given the possibility that Lord Edmund Howard would be deprived of his possible inheritance, the
Earl Talbot's claim was resisted not only by the Duke of Norfolk, but also by the Princess Doria
Pamphili-Landi of Rome, the only surviving child of the 16th Earl of Shrewsbury, and a Major 
Talbot, of Castle Talbot, of Wexford in Ireland. Because so much was at stake, the case soon
became known as the "Great Shrewsbury Case."
The following is my summary of the pedigree relied upon by Earl Talbot in his claim. It is rather
complex, but I hope you can follow it.
The title of Earl of Shrewsbury was created in 1442 by Henry VI and conferred by that monarch
on Sir John Talbot and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, as a reward for Sir John's
distinguished services as commander of the English army in France. The title descended in direct
succession through father and son for two generations to John Talbot, 3rd Earl. The 3rd Earl had
a younger brother, Sir Gilbert Talbot of Grafton, to whom we will return later.
After the death of the 3rd Earl, the title descended from father to son until the death of the 7th
Earl in 1616, when he was succeeded by his brother, Edward Talbot, who became 8th Earl. He
died two years later, when this branch of the Talbot family became extinct.
We now go back to Sir Gilbert Talbot of Grafton, brother of the 3rd Earl. Sir Gilbert had three 
sons - the eldest, another Gilbert, died without male issue; the second, Humphrey, died in the 
Holy Land, also without male issue; the third, Sir John Talbot of Albrighton, left a number of male 
heirs from two marriages. His eldest son from his first marriage was Sir John Talbot of Grafton, 
and it was Sir John's grandson, George Talbot, who succeeded as 9th Earl of Shrewsbury on the
death of the 8th Earl in 1618. 
The 9th Earl, who was a Roman Catholic priest, died childless in 1630. He was succeeded by his
nephew, John Talbot as 10th Earl. This John was twice married - by his first wife, he had three
sons; George, who died without issue in the lifetime of his father; Francis, who succeeded his 
father as 11th Earl in 1654; and Gilbert Talbot of Balchcoate, to whom we will return shortly. On
the death of Francis, 11th Earl, in 1668 (of wounds received in a duel with the 2nd Duke of
Buckingham), the title descended to his son, Charles Talbot, who was subsequently created
Duke of Shrewsbury in 1694, the Dukedom becoming extinct on his death in 1718. The next heir
to the Earldom was Gilbert, son of the Gilbert Talbot of Balchcoate mentioned above. He was a
Jesuit priest, who never assumed the use of the title and who died unmarried in 1743. The title
then passed to his nephew, George, 14th Earl and subsequently descended to Bertram Arthur 
Talbot, 17th Earl, who died unmarried in 1856. On his death, the descendants of Sir John Talbot
of Albrighton by his first marriage became extinct.
Back we go again to Sir John Talbot of Albrighton, and, in particular, the issue from his second
marriage. His first son from the second marriage had died without issue, but the second son of
the second marriage, John Talbot of Salwarp, in turn produced a number of sons, the eldest of
whom, Sherrington Talbot, was twice married. By his first marriage, he had a number of sons, all 
of whom except the eldest, another Sherrington, died without issue. This Sherrington also had a
number of sons, all of whom, with the exception of John Talbot of Lacock, had no male issue.
John Talbot of Lacock married twice and had a number of children, but eventually the
descendants of Sherrington Talbot by his first marriage died out and this line became extinct.
The next heirs were, as a result, to be found amongst the descendants of Sherrington Talbot 
from his second marriage. The eldest son from the second marriage, George Talbot of Rudge, 
died leaving only a daughter. The next son, William Talbot of Whittington, had a son, also William 
Talbot, who became Bishop of Oxford 1699-1715 and Bishop of Salisbury 1715-1722. His son, in
turn, was Charles Talbot, Lord Chancellor between 1733 and 1737 and who was created Baron
Talbot of Hensol in 1733. The Earl Talbot who was the claimant in the Shrewsbury case was
descended in a direct line from the 1st Baron Talbot of Hensol.
After a great deal of lengthy argument placed before the House of Lords Committee for
Privileges, mainly concerning the evidence of the extinction of all other possible lines of descent
from the 1st Earl, the Committee decided, on 1 June 1858, that the Earl Talbot was entitled to 
become the 18th Earl of Shrewsbury.
The next question to be decided was that of the ownership of the estates. It was commonly
supposed at the time that the estates had been annexed to the Earldom by an Act of 
Parliament, and were therefore inalienable. As we have seen, the 17th Earl did not agree with
this view and had included in his will a provision to leave the whole of the estates in trust for 
the second son of the Duke of Norfolk. The motivation behind the 17th Earl's wish to dispose
of the estates could, perhaps, be that he thought that the Earldom would become extinct on
his death, or, alternatively, his wish to keep the estates within his extended family, since the
Dukes of Norfolk were descended from a daughter of the 7th Earl of Shrewsbury.
In 1700, the owner of the Shrewsbury estates was Charles Talbot, 1st and only Duke of 
Shrewsbury. Although he came from a Catholic family, and had been raised as a Catholic, he
converted to the Church of England and took a prominent role in the 1688 Revolution. In that
year, an Act of Parliament was passed "to prevent the growth of Popery" which imposed upon
Catholics an incapacity to acquire property unless they converted to the Protestant religion.
The passing of this harsh act appears to have prompted the Duke to take precautions for
preserving his estates for his Catholic relations by settling his estates by way of trust in the
hands of Protestant friends who he knew would do the right thing, a device which was quite
common at that time.  Accordingly, on 31 October 1700, the Duke settled the whole of his
estates, failing his own male issue, on his cousin George Talbot, later the 14th Earl. 
In 1720, by an Act of Parliament (6th George I, cap 29) the Shrewsbury estates were annexed 
to the Earldom and a bar was placed on the alienation of such estates. After much debate on
the matter, the Court decided that this prevented the provisions of the will of the 17th Earl
from operating, and thus the 18th Earl regained control of the Shrewsbury estates.
Charles Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury and 5th Earl Talbot, his
wife and his son, Viscount Ingestre
One of the greatest aristocratic scandals of the 19th century was the elopement of the 20th
Earl of Shrewsbury with Ellen Miller-Mundy, wife of Alfred Edward Miller-Mundy, in April 1881.
Miller-Mundy filed for divorce, and a decree nisi was granted on 10 December 1881. The decree
was made absolute on 20 June 1882, and the following day the Earl and the former Mrs. Miller-
Mundy were married.
Following the marriage, the "Chicago Daily Tribune" of 23 June 1882 reported:-
'England has a new premier Countess [the earldom of Shrewsbury is the premier earldom of 
England] who is not likely to be received at Court by the Queen with open arms. Charles Henry
John Chetwynd-Talbot, twentieth Earl of Shrewsbury in the peerage of England, Earl of 
Waterford in the peerage of Ireland, Earl Talbot, Viscount Ingestre, and Baron Talbot of Hensol
in the peerage of Great Britain, Premier Earl of England, and Hereditary Great Seneschal of
Ireland, a youth just turned 21, was yesterday married to the divorced wife of Mr. Miller Mundy,
of Derbyshire. Lord Shrewsbury, who was born Nov. 13, 1860, is the son of the nineteenth Earl,
a man of ability, conspicuous in his youth, as Lord Ingestre, for his sympathy with all reform-
atory and humanitarian movements. His mother was the daughter of a naval officer whose widow
afterwards married the late Earl of Eglinton. He succeeded his father as twentieth Earl of
Shrewsbury and fifth Earl of Talbot on the 11th of May, 1877. The lady whom he has now 
married is four years his senior, having been born in 1856. She was by birth a Miss Morewood, 
the daughter of Charles Rowland Palmer-Morewood, of Alfreton Hall, Derbyshire, a country
gentleman of old family and good fortune, by his marriage with Georgiana, daughter of the
seventh Lord Byron, the poet's nephew and successor. Her brother is the head of the family of
Palmer to which Lord Selborne belongs, the name of Morewood having been assumed with the
Morewood estates. Miss Morewood was married Sept. 25, 1873, to a country gentleman of
fortune and of family equal to her own, Mr. Alfred Edward Miller-Mundy, of Shipley Hall, in
Derbyshire, by whom she had one child, born in August, 1874.
'Some time in the spring of 1880 Mrs. Miller-Mundy made the acquaintance of the Earl of
Shrewsbury, then a lad of 20, and their intimacy soon became so marked as to lead to
bickerings between her husband and herself. In April, 1881, she went to visit her sister at
Torquay, from which charming seaside resort she suddenly eloped with the Earl. Her husband
and her brother followed them to Strasburg, where the fugitives had registered themselves at 
the Hôtel de la Ville de Paris as "Mr. and Mrs. Grafton," and finally overtook them by a mere
chance on a railway train just as it was moving out of the station. Mr. Palmer-Morewood
clambered upon the platform rail of the railway carriage and through the window, and when the
conductor opened the carriage at the next station it presented all the evidence of a conflict as
hot as any ever waged the Earl's great ancestor, the historic Talbot of Shakespeare [in Henry V
and Henry VI], on the soil of France. Mrs. Miller-Mundy went back to England and the scandal
filled the clubs and the "society papers." Certain chroniclers scrupled not to aver that Mrs. 
Miller-Mundy had "given the straight tip" to her relatives in order to bring about an explosion
which would result in a divorce. In the interval sundry incidents kept the scandal alive. Mrs.
Mundy's mother meeting the Earl at the railroad station at Wirksworth, for example, savagely
assaulted him with her umbrella, like another Mrs. Gamp [in Charles Dickens' "Martin Chuzzlewit"].
On another occasion the Earl artfully induced his brother-in-law (now deceased), Lord Helmsley
[son of the 1st Earl of Feversham], who had been enjoined to keep an eye on him, to go and
arrange preliminaries for a duel with Mr. Palmer-Morewood, who was keeping watch over Mrs.
Miller-Mundy. While the two watch-dogs were thus occupied, the Earl flitted out of reach and
met the lady. When in November last [1881] the Earl of Shrewsbury came of age, he took Mrs.
Miller-Mundy down to Alton Towers, his seat, introduced her as "the lady whom he intends 
hereafter to make his wife" to his tenants, and kindly offered drive with her through the town
of Stafford to rally the party of Church and State to the banners of the Conservative candidate
in the then pending Parliamentary [by] election, an offer which, strange to say, was promptly
declined by the local committee.'
The new Countess's maiden name was Palmer-Morewood. While the scandal of her elopement
was still very much to the forefront of the public's mind, a fresh scandal involving her brothers
erupted. The Wikipedia articles on both the 20th Earl and on Alfreton Hall, the home of the 
Palmer-Morewood family, refer to this scandal, but unfortunately both articles are incorrect as
to its dating. The events outlined below occurred in December 1881, not 1887, and the 
references to "Strange British Crime" shown at the foot of both articles to the New York Times
of 29 January 1888 should read 29 January 1882. The New York Times report reads:-
'An epidemic of scandal and social outrage appears to be afflicting England at the present time.
There are epidemics of burglary and murder as well as epidemics of fever and small-pox. The
latest trouble is a strange outbreak of crime affecting the domestic hearth and illuminating the
ranks of the higher classes of society. "The Morewood Affair," a Derbyshire scandal, holds a 
foremost place in the social annals of the time. It is an episode of Christmas; but it is accent-
uated in this new year by the estreating of bail money to the extent of $20,000 bonds entered
into for the appearance of four "aristocratic" prisoners who have decamped to foreign lands. The
story is a curious satire upon the supposed culture and good feeling of English country families.
From my own knowledge of this society I am bound to say it is a somewhat exceptional case of
utter blackguardism and lawlessness.
'Alfreton Hall is a pleasant mansion situated on one of the uplands overlooking the Erewash 
Valley, just where the green plains of Nottinghamshire rise into the wooded heights of the Peak
of Derbyshire. A sweet rural valley was this stretch of the midlands intersected by one little
river - Erewash - in the days before coal was discovered throughout its entire length. Now,
however, colliery shafting and steam engines seam and scar its face with an erysipelas [i.e. an
acute disease of the skin] of smoke and dirt - pillars of cloud by day and fires by night. Out of
these rich coal mines the Morewoods of Alfreton, a county family, have become opulent. They
have "struck oil." The father of the family died recently, and the elder brother, Mr. Charles
Palmer-Morewood, a county magistrate and the Squire of Alfreton, acting as head of the family,
invited a Christmas gathering of his kinsmen at the ancestral hall. His mother and his four
brothers assembled there on Christmas Day. They were hospitably entertained......All went on
with peace and goodwill until the mother left. Then Mr. Morewood and his four brothers 
adjourned to the smoking-room.
'There appears to have been an interval in which the merits of a greatly prized old rum, which
was in a singular, antique bottle, were discussed. Suddenly, without words or warning, Squire
Morewood was seized by his four brothers and thrust into the library. They locked the door
inside. Then they endeavoured to dragoon him into signing a document to their pecuniary
advantage. This document related to certain money mentioned in the dead father's will, some
of which, being vested in colliery interests, had not had time to be realized and paid over to
them. The father left each of his sons a legacy of $100,000. Part of this patrimony the four
younger brothers had received. Now they resorted to fear and force to obtain the remainder.
The victim of their treachery refused to sign the document. He would not be cowed by coercion.
He was told that the four brothers had cast lots to take his life. A revolver was held at his head
to emphasize the treat. The elder brother resisted, and a desperate and dastardly struggle
ensued. It was four against one. The elder brother twice struggled to the bell and rang for help.
When the butler answered the summons of his master he was dismissed by one of the brothers
on some trivial errand, while the others held their victim. Finally the four miscreants left their
victim on the floor senseless and bleeding. "Go into the library," they said to one of the servants
as they left the house, "you will find your master lying very drunk."  It was a sorrowful and
sickening sight that met this servant's gaze when he went into the ancestral dining salon,
furnished with all that wealth could procure and taste suggest. The Squire was lying on the 
carpet in a pool of blood. He was entirely naked. All his clothes had been cut from off his body.
He was insensible and bleeding from several wounds.
'While this fracas was going on, Mrs. Morewood, the Squire's wife, was lying in bed in the same
house, her confinement having taken place only a short time previously. The four young heroes
[George Herbert, Alfred, Ernest Augustus and William Louis Palmer-Morewood] were subsequently
arrested upon warrants charging them with "unlawfully assaulting" Mr. C.R. Palmer-Morewood,
Justice of the Peace, but they were liberated on bail, each in his own recognizance of $2,500,
and sureties of $2,500 each, making a total sum of $20,000. When, however, the case came on
for trial the defendants had absconded and the bail was estreated. The money was paid, and it 
is understood that it came from the pockets of the fugitives. The fact that the Police warrant 
was only for "common assault," and that the aristocratic ruffians were allowed bail at all, is
regarded as a serious reflection on the justice dispensed by the English unpaid magistracy. Had
these civilized savages been lower in the social scale, it is said they would have been charged 
with a more penal offense and been offered no opportunity of liberty. Now they are reported to
be laughing at the law in France or Spain. One account which reaches us from Alfreton declares
they are about to embark for a cruise in the Mediterranean in the beautiful yacht of the Earl of
Shrewsbury. "These four young aesthetes, their divorced and divine sister, and the lordly
libertine," says my correspondent, "will make, no doubt, a merry crew."
In October 1913, the Earl's son, who used the courtesy title of Viscount Ingestre, made a pre-
emptive petition seeking to prove that he was the legitimate son of Lord and Lady Shrewsbury.
This petition was discussed in a report in the "Evening Post" of 2 December 1913:-
'London, October 15 - The President of the Divorce Court had before him this week a rather 
remarkable case, this being the petition of the Hon. Charles John Alton Chetwynd Talbot, 
Viscount Ingestre, to be declared the legitimate son of the Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury.
Lord Ingestre was born less than three months after the marriage of his parents, his mother 
being the divorced wife of Mr. Miller Mundy, of Derbyshire. Lord Ingestre is heir to the peerage,
and the petition was brought to remove any possibility of doubt arising in the future. The
Crown was represented by the Attorney-General, who was nominally the defendant, and the
parties cited were those next in succession, including Major General Sir Reginald Talbot, Mr.
Humphrey John Talbot, and Mr. Geoffrey Richard Henry Talbot.
'In opening for the petition, Mr. Priestley, K.C., said that the present Earl of Shrewsbury, being
then a bachelor, was married to Ellen Mary, formerly the wife of Alfred Edward Miller Mundy, at
the Registry Office, St. George's, Hanover Square, on 21st June 1882. On 8th September 1882,
"the same year," emphasized counsel, the petitioner was born at Alton Towers, Lord 
Shrewsbury's seat in Staffordshire, and, having been born after their marriage, he was their 
lawful and legitimate son. Having been born after wedlock, that was conclusive, unless proof to
the contrary were given, that he was the son of Lord and Lady Shrewsbury.
'He had always been recognized, said counsel, as their son by his father and mother, and by
their relations and friends. He held a commission in the Horse Guards as Lord Ingestre; he was
decorated by King Edward as Lord Ingestre; he was married as Lord Ingestre, that being the 
courtesy title of the Shrewsbury family. There had never been any question about it or his
position, but lately someone in a business transaction put the question about his mother's
former marriage, and as there were considerable interests involved Lord Ingestre and his father
thought it desirable, while all the evidence was available, that a declaration should be 
pronounced in Court.
'Counsel drew attention to the important dates in the case. On 21st or 22nd April 1881, he
said, Mrs. Miller Mundy left her husband and went away with Lord Shrewsbury; and she had not
lived with Mr. Miller Mundy after that date. Lord Ingestre having been born on the 8th 
September 1882, Mr. Miller Mundy could not, if the facts he had stated were true, be the father
of the child. On the 26th April 1881, Mr. Miller Mundy and his brother-in-law, Mr. Morewood, saw
Mrs. Miller Mundy at Strasburg. It was to be gathered from the evidence that he saw her there
upon that date for the last time. So far as he (counsel) knew he had never spoken to or seen
her since 26th April 1881. On 1st May 1881, Mrs. Miller Mundy came to England via Paris, and
she did not go back to Mr. Miller Mundy. After 1st May 1881, she was constantly in Lord
Shrewsbury's society and on 16 May 1881, Mr. Miller Mundy filed for divorce, alleging his wife's
misconduct with Lord Shrewsbury. They did not defend that petition. On 5th July 1881, Mrs.
Miller Mundy joined Lord Shrewsbury's yacht, 'Castalia' at Eastbourne. They went away from
England and were absent until 21st October 1881, when they reached Flushing [in the Nether-
lands]. They lived together continuously from 5th July 1881, until their marriage the following
year. They, on 24 November 1881, went to the Hotel Windsor, Paris, staying there until 31st
December of the same year. Next day they joined the yacht at Toulon and were cruising about
together until 11th March 1882. On 24th March they went to Trent, in Sussex, to a house they
had taken, and lived there until June.
'On 10th December 1881, counsel also mentioned, the decree nisi was pronounced by Sir James
Hanner, and it was made absolute on 20th June 1882. The next day there was the marriage in
London, and Lord and Lady Shrewsbury went straight down to Alton Towers, and, as far as
counsel knew, they remained there, until after the birth of Lord Ingestre. He was the only son,
but there was a daughter, who was married.
'On 23rd April 1904, Lord Ingestre married Lord Alexander Paget's daughter in the presence of
many of their relations, and his father, Lord Shrewsbury, signed the register as one of the 
witnesses. His father was now present in Court to support his claim. There were seven others 
next in succession, and they had been cited, but had not appeared, except one, Sir Reginald
Talbot, who at the last moment asked leave to come in so that he might support the claim.
'The Attorney-General said he did not dispute any of the evidence, and the President declared
the petitioner to be the legitimate son of Lord and Lady Shrewsbury.'
The special remainder to the Barony of Shute
From the "London Gazette" of 16 April 1880 (issue 15461, page 270):-
"The Queen has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland granting the dignity of a Baron of the said United
Kingdom to the Right Honourable George William, Viscount Barrington, in that part of the said
United Kingdom called Ireland, and the heirs males of his body lawfully begotten, by the name,
style, and title of Baron Shute, of Beckett, in the county of Berks, with remainder, in default of
such issue male, to his brother Percy Barrington, Esq. (commonly called the Honourable Percy
Barrington), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten."
Arun Kumar Sinha, 2nd Baron Sinha
The 1st Baron Sinha received his peerage in 1919, the first Indian to be ennobled. On his
death in 1928, his son attempted to prove his right to a seat in the House of Lords, but
this was denied on a technicality. At the time of his birth, there was no registration of births
and marriages in India. Every peer must produce a copy either of his birth or of his parents'
marriage certificate before he can take his seat, but he was unable to do so.
In December 1936, Lord Sinha took the opportunity at an audience with King Edward VIII (just
prior to his abdication) to present a petition for a writ of summons to the House of Lords. This
petition was subsequently considered by the Committee for Privileges in 1939.
According to a report in "The Times" of 26 July 1939, 'there was no dispute in relation to any of
the facts stated in the petition. The late Baron Sinha on May 15, 1880 [just prior to his 16th
birthday], married Gobinda Mohini Sinha according to the formalities prescribed by Hindu law and
usage. He and his wife were at all times domiciled in the Presidency of Bengal and were members
of the Hindu community at the date of the marriage, which took place in the Presidency. Hindu
law did not forbid a plurality of wives, but the marriage in fact remained a union between the
late Lord Sinha and his wife to the exclusion of any other spouses. It was a monogamous
'In 1886, and before the birth of the petitioner, Lord Sinha and his wife joined the religious sect 
known as the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, and they remained members of it during the whole of
their married life. One of the main tenets of the sect was monogamy, and so long as the late
Lord Sinha continued to be a member of the sect he could not while his first wife was alive
contract a second marriage which the Courts in India would recognise as valid. He never did
leave the sect.
'The petitioner was born in Calcutta on 22 August, 1887, and was the eldest son of the 
marriage. Lord Sinha died in 1928; and the question was whether the petitioner, within the
meaning of the patent, was the heir male of the body lawfully begotten.
'The Lord Chancellor said that nothing in their decision of that petition was intended to apply
to a case where the petitioner was claiming as a son of a parent who had in fact married two
wives. It was apparent that great difficulties might arise in questions relating to the descent
of a dignity where the marriage from which heirship was alleged to result was one of a
polygamous character.
'If sons were born to one or more of the wives it might be difficult to reconcile one of those
sons with English ideas of "heirship," which must be involved in the words contained in a patent
granted by the King in a well-known form and dealing with a British dignity which entitled the
holder to sit and vote in the House of Lords. If there were several wives the son of a second or
third wife might be a claimant to a dignity to the exclusion of a later born son of the first wife.
The law as to heirship in England had provided no means of settling such questions as those.
'Those difficulties, however, did not arise in the present case. The petitioner was beyond doubt
the eldest son of the late Lord Sinha by his only wife and equally beyond doubt he was lawfully
begotten according to the laws of India applicable to Hindu parents. Having regard to the
domicile of the parties to the marriage at the date when it was solemnized the marriage would
properly be treated as valid in this country for all purposes, except, it might be, the inheritance
of real estate before the Law of Property Act, 1925, or the devolution of entailed interests as
equitable interests before or since that date, and some other exceptional cases.
'The present question related to the descent of a dignity conferred by the Crown on a subject
resident and domiciled in India who, according to his religion at the date of the patent, was
prohibited from forming a polygamous union.
'The case was without precedent in peerage law, and, in the absence of authority, must be
decided in the light of its special facts. Announcing the decision of the Committee, the Lord
Chancellor (Lord Maugham) said: "I have formed the opinion, with which I believe your lordships
concur, that the petitioner on the facts stated has established that is the 'heir male of the body
of the late Lord Sinha, lawfully begotten.' " '
Susanta Prasanna Sinha, 4th Baron Sinha
Susanta Sinha, son and heir of the 3rd Baron Sinha, together with his sister, was charged with 
the murder of two of his children in 1979. Both defendants were subsequently acquitted. Sinha
succeeded his father as 4th Baron Sinha in 1989, and, in the normal course of events, his son
would have succeeded as 5th Baron on the death of the 4th Baron in 1992. The story of these
deaths and the subsequent trial verdicts is shown in the following edited newspaper extracts:-
The Observer 27 May 1979:-
'The death of a four-year-old boy who would one day have sat in the House of Lords as the
fifth Baron Sinha of Raipur [sic], and that of his three-year-old sister, have provided Calcutta's
cocktail-party circuit with a satisfyingly macabre topic for speculation.
'The title involved is not ancient or grand by the standards of Indian maharajahs, but it is 
unique. The children's grandfather, Lord Sinha, is a prominent figure in Calcutta society. He is
also the third holder of the only hereditary peerage ever to have been conferred on a non-
'His father was counted among the Liberal peers, but Lord Sinha, 58, sits on the cross benches
during his rare visits to the Lords. The original recipient in 1919 was his grandfather, Sir
Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, an eminent Bengali lawyer who represented India at the Versailles
conference and was for two years a member of Lloyd George's Government.
'The case has all the other ingredients that make for a cause célèbre. According to West
Bengal's fire chief, who investigated the mysterious circumstances in which Shane Patrick and
Sharon Patricia perished in the small hours of 28 November last year, no one else was injured
in the raging fire in the family mansion in Lord Sinha Road.
'In a packed courtroom last week, Calcutta police brought a murder charge against the children's
father, the Hon. Susanta Prasanna Sinha, 26, Lord Sinha's only son and heir. Mr Sinha is a
dapper young tea broker with a fondness for jazz. In his spare time he plays the piano in a
fashionable Calcutta restaurant.
'Through the jazz band, Mr Sinha met an Anglo-Indian telephonist, Patricia Orchard, whom he
married in 1972. The couple separated after three children were born (the elder daughter,
Caroline, remained with her mother) and Mr Sinha's divorce application for adultery is still
'Also accused of murder is Lord Sinha's attractive 32-year-old daughter, the Hon. Manjula,
divorced wife of Prince Tobgye Dorji, a first cousin of King Jigme Singye Wangchuck of Bhutan
[who was King of Bhutan from July 1972 until he abdicated in December 2006] and now in New
York with the Himalayan kingdom's United Nations team.
'Under India's complex judicial system, there will be another magistrate's hearing on 12 June to
provide the accused with prosecution documents before Mr Sinha and Mrs Dorji may be
formally committed to the sessions court for trial. If convicted, they could be imprisoned for
'Brother and sister have already spent 10 days in jail and are now on bail. Though not required
to enter a plea until the sessions trial, Mrs Dorji and Mr Sinha maintain their innocence and
insist that the deaths were accidental.'
The Times of India 23 February 1980:-
'Sushanta Prasanna Sinha alias Sunna and Mrs. Manjula Dorji, only son and daughter of Lord
S. P. Sinha, were today committed to the sessions on the charge of murdering Shane (four) and
Sharon (three), only son and the youngest daughter respectively, of accused Sushanta 
Prasanna Sinha, on November 28, 1978, and of causing disappearance of evidence.
'It was stated that Sushanta and his sister drank till midnight with two guests in their house on
November 27. A few hours later, there was a big fire in the bedroom of Sushanta. When the
police and fire brigade men rushed to the spot, Sushanta and his sister were found lying in Mrs.
Dorji's bedroom which was bolted from inside.
'None of the members of Lord Sinha's family informed either the police or the fire brigade men
that two children were lying in Sushanta's bedroom. An ayah [maid or nurse] of the house
informed the police about the two children. The police rushed to the bedroom and found the
charred bodies of the two children lying side by side on the floor carpet.
'The post-mortem report revealed the presence of foreign chemical substance on the burnt
tissues of the two children, on the garments and also on the carpet.'
The Observer 7 September 1980:-
'India's most sensational murder trial ended last week with the acquittal of the 28-year-old
heir to the only non-European hereditary member of the British House of Lords.
'The Hon. Susanta Prasanna Sinha, only son of the third Baron Sinha (his grandfather was 
raised to the Peerage in 1919) was found not guilty of murdering his two children, Shane
Patrick, four, and Sharon Patricia, three, or of suppressing evidence of murder. Also acquitted
of the same charges was Lord Sinha's elder daughter, Manjula, 33, divorced wife of Prince
Tobgye Dorjee, a first cousin of King Jigme Singye Wangchuck of Bhutan. Both pleaded not
'Rejecting the charges, Judge J. K. Bhattacharjee of Calcutta's Sessions Court said the
prosecution case was 'entirely circumstantial.'
'The case arose out of a fire which swept through the family's town mansion in Calcutta one
night in November 1978. Shane Patrick and Sharon Patricia were asleep in their second floor
bedroom. The fire brigade later recovered their charred bodies.
'A week later their Anglo-Indian mother, Mrs Patricia Sinha, who is estranged from her husband,
caused inquiries to be started.
'The police case, supported by 47 witnesses, including members of the Sinha family, was that
Manjula Dorjee wanted to get rid of her nephew and niece so that they did not share in the
Sinha inheritance. Judge Bhattacharjee also accepted that the children had not been killed
earlier but had perished in the fire, which was entirely accidental.'
Howe Peter Browne, 2nd Marquess of Sligo
In December 1812, Sligo was charged and convicted of "enticing British Seamen to desert." The
following account is taken from the 'Newgate Calendar.'
'At nine o'clock [on 16 December 1812] Sir William Scott attended, and charged the grand jury.
The [Admiralty] Court then adjourned till ten o'clock, at which hour Sir William returned, 
accompanied by Lord Ellenborough, Mr Baron Thompson and several Doctors of Law. The Duke
of Clarence was on the bench. The jury were then sworn to try the Marquis of Sligo, who
appeared in court, and sat by his counsel, Messrs Dauncey, Dampier and Scarlett.
'Before the trial began, Mr Dauncey stated that his lordship wished to plead guilty as to part, 
and not guilty to the rest; and wished, therefore, only one part now be entered into.
'Dr Robinson, on the other side, was not unwilling to accede to this arrangement; but Lord
Ellenborough said that the indictment must not be garbled. He must plead guilty to the whole, 
or not guilty to the whole. 
'After some conversation between the counsel the trial proceeded; the indictment was read,
charging the Marquis with unlawfully receiving on board his ship William Elden, a seaman in the
King's service, and detaining, concealing and secreting him. The second count charged him with
enticing and persuading the said seaman to desert; the third count, with receiving the said
Elden, knowing him to have deserted.
'There were other counts with respect to other seamen, and a count for an assault and false
'Dr Robinson (the Advocate-General) stated the case. Captain Sprainger (examined by the
Attorney-General) stated that in April, 1810, the Marquis was introduced to him by letter from
Admiral Martin; his lordship appeared desirous of making a tour, and for that purpose hired a 
vessel called the Pylades. The witness gave him all the assistance in his power, by sending him
riggers and carpenters and gunners, who were lent to him for the purpose of outfitting his
vessel, but still remained part of his (Captain Sprainger's) crew. In the course of these
transactions his lordship passed and repassed in a boat called the gig, which was rowed by four 
men: Charles Lee, Robert Lloyd, James Foljambe and John Walker; they had belonged to the
boat for three years, and were constantly in it. The defendant observed that they were fine
clever-looking men. Afterwards, about a week before he sailed, he missed two of these men,
which the more surprised him as they were very trusty seamen, had never been absent or
irregular, and, though frequently suffered to go on shore without a midshipman, had never in
any instance abused this confidence. They had, besides, the wages of three years due to them.
'On the 13th, before he sailed, he went on board the Pylades to see Lord Sligo, and told him of
the extraordinary circumstances of his missing these two men, whom his lordship probably
recollected. He was then going to communicate to his lordship some suspicions which his
officers had suggested to him, when Lord Sligo interrupted him, saying surely he (Captain
Sprainger) could not think him so base as to take away these men, after the civilities by him
shown to his lordship. He further said that some of the men whom he had lent to him had
offered to desert, but he had refused to accept them. Witness then replied to Lord Sligo that
he trusted he had not his men, and that he would not take them or any others from his 
Majesty's service; but, lest they should come to him, he (Captain S) would leave a description
of their persons, and take his lordship's word of honour that he would not receive them, but
give them up to the commanding officer at Malta, who had orders to keep them till his return.
He then left his lordship, having received his promise and word of honour, and having remarked
to his lordship how serious a thing it was to entice his Majesty's seamen. The fleet was at 
that time nearly two thousand below its complement, and it was very difficult to procure
British seamen. He did not muster his lordship's crew; they seemed to be foreigners, in number
about twenty or thirty. His lordship had proposed to take fifty men, as his vessel was to be a
letter of marque. A few would have been sufficient for the purposes of navigation. As soon as
reached the ship he ordered a description of the two men to be made out, and it was sent to
Lord Sligo; he received no answer then, though he afterwards had a letter from his lordship.
He had never seen Lee or Lloyd since. (The letter was here read, in which Lord Sligo stated
that in the course of his voyage he found that he had on board some men-of-war's men, and
that he was determined to send them on shore [at] the first opportunity. Whatever expenses
he might incur on their account he should put down to the score of humanity, and glory in it.
He thought this explanation necessary to Captain Sprainger, who had treated him like a 
gentleman; but the other captain who complained he should not notice. If the business was
brought into court he should do his best to defend himself, and if he did not succeed he had 
an ample fortune, and could pay the fines.) The letter was dated Constantinople.
'William Elden, a seaman - who was in the navy nearly thirteen years, and at the time
mentioned was on board the Montague, off Malta, and had a ticket-of-leave to go ashore
there on the 13th of that month, in the morning - said he and other seamen, belonging to the
Montague, four of them in all, were going back to their ships when they were accosted by
two men in livery, and another, who was dressed in a white jacket. The men in livery were
servants of the Marquess of Sligo, and the other was the second mate of his lordship's vessel.
They gave him drink, and so intoxicated him that he knew not how he got on board the Pylades,
where he found himself placed in the pump well, abaft the mainmast, when he recovered his 
senses, and there he also saw two more of his shipmates, and a stranger, who was in a sailor's
dress. Witness then came on deck, where he saw Macdermot, Thompson, Cook, Fisher and
Brown on the deck. He also saw Lord Sligo on board, that evening on deck, who asked him his
name, when witness told his name, and he belonged to the Montague. They were then two
miles from shore. Next morning he again saw Lord Sligo, being then perfectly sober, when he
was walking the deck with a shipmate of the Montague, of which they were talking. Lord
Sligo again asked their names, and they answered that they were Elden and Story, and that
those were the names by which they went on board that ship; but Story told his lordship that
being men-of-war's men it would not do to go by their own names, and Lord Sligo immediately
said: "Come to me, and I will alter them." They went on the quarterdeck, and defendant gave
the name of William Smith to the witness. A few days afterwards his lordship told him that he
would be useful in exercising the guns, to which he replied that he saw none there who did not 
know the use of the guns as well as himself. He then saw nine men of the Montague there:
Cook, Fisher, Brown, Story, Sullivan, Thompson, Macdermot and Travers. Lord Sligo took an
active part in the management of the vessel, and assigned to them all their duties. At Palermo
he asked Lord Sligo for leave to go on shore to get clothes; his lordship gave him five four-
dollar pieces for wages. He went onshore and returned, not surrendering himself to any King's
ship. At Messina he begged leave to quit the Pylades, and offered to return all the money and
clothes he had received; his lordship would not suffer him, and foreign sentinels were placed in
arms over the crew to prevent any from escaping. Lord Sligo at Palermo told the crew that he
had procured a protection from Admiral Martin, having pledged his honour that he had no men-
of-war's men on board. They were afterwards chased by the Active frigate and a brig, and were
brought to, and a King's boat came alongside. Lord Sligo the desired witness to go below, who 
said he would rather stay where he was. The rest were then below. Lord Sligo left him for a few
minutes; but returned, and told him he must go down. He then went down into the after-hold
underneath the cabin, where were the rest of the seamen of the Warrior and the Montague; 
the hatch was closed over them, and a ladder placed on top. In about half-an-hour they were
called up. They then proceeded to Patmos, where he and some more had leave of absence
for a few days. The next day Lord Sligo sailed without giving them any notice, and left him and
six more in great distress. They were forced to sell their clothing; they had nothing but what
they stood upright in. They got a boat, but could not overtake the Pylades; they then went to
Scio, and went with a British consul to the Pylades; but Lord Sligo refused to take them in,
and threatened to fire at them; he knew them very well, as they were all upon deck; he took
four of them on board - the carpenter, the surgeon, the man of the Warrior (Lee) and the
sailmaker. The witness had been since tried, and sentenced to receive two hundred lashes;
but his punishment had been remitted.
'Fisher, Sullivan and Brown, all belonging to the Montague, corroborated Elden's statement.
Captain Hayes deposed to his having searched the Pylades, when the Marquis declared, upon 
his word, no men were concealed on board.
'After a short consultation in the box the jury found his lordship guilty of all the counts in the
indictment, except one for false imprisonment.
'The judge (Sir William Scott [later Baron Stowell]) then ordered that his lordship, who was in 
court, should enter into recognisance to appear the next day to receive judgment.
'The trial lasted till nearly two o'clock in the morning.
'The Marquis of Sligo on Thursday [17 December 1812] appeared in court to receive sentence;
an affidavit was put in, which purported that he knew nothing of the circumstances of his
having men-of-war's men on board till the time of the search.
'Lord Ellenborough interrupted it by observing that the affidavit must not impeach the evidence.
Mr Scarlett said that was not its object. The affidavit was then continued, stating that as soon
as he found two of the Warrior's men he was anxious to dismiss them; it then expressed
contrition for his folly and rashness, and a hope that the letter which was written to Captain 
Sprainger (which was never intended for the public) would not be thought to convey any
disrespect for the laws of his country, which he was ready and anxious to uphold.
'Sir William Scott then, after an impressive speech, passed the sentence of the Court upon
his lordship, which was, that his lordship should pay to the King a fine of five thousand
pounds, and be imprisoned four months in Newgate.
'His lordship bowed, and was conducted by the keepers through the private door to the jail.'
There was a happy sequel to the Marquess's trial. His mother, the Dowager Marchioness, was
so impressed with the fatherly advice given by Sir William Scott when sentencing the
Marquess that she expressed the opinion that "it would be an excellent thing if her son could
continue to have the benefit of such paternal counsels." Accordingly the Dowager Marchioness
and Sir William were married shortly afterwards, although the Marquess, still being in prison,
could not attend the ceremony. Nevertheless, the influence of his new step-father appears
to have been beneficial, as the Marquess was subsequently rehabilitated, being Governor of
Jamaica, Lord Lieutenant of Mayo and a Privy Counsellor.
George Ulick Browne, 6th Marquess of Sligo
The 5th Marquess of Sligo, father of the 6th Marquess, was employed in the Indian Civil Service
under the name of Lord Henry Ulick Browne between 1850 and 1886. As a result, he was present
in India during the time of the Indian Mutiny.
According to an article in the 'Chicago Daily Tribune' of 1 March 1913:-
'…..he [the 6th Marquess] was a 12 months' old baby when the great Sepoy mutiny broke
out in India in 1857…..His father [Lord Henry Ulick Browne, later the 5th Marquess] left his wife
and his little boy at Monghyr [now known as Munger, a city on the Ganges River in what was
then Bengal, now the state of Bihar] in what he believed to be complete safety, while he
himself hurried, in response to the call of duty, to the scene of the trouble. 
'To his dismay the rebels cut off all chance of his rejoining his wife and child, and, worse
still, surrounded Monghyr.
'Lady Ulick Browne, as she was then, sought refuge with the baby in the collector's house,
together with the few other English people in the district, and during four weeks sustained a
siege which cost the lives of most of the defenders through thirst, hunger, disease, and the foe.
'Lady Ulick realised that her little boy would succumb if he remained, and she accordingly took
the desperate risk of permitting her devoted Hindoo ayah, or nurse, to dye the child a dusky
color with chestnut leaves and to make her way with him through the insurgents' lines by
passing off the little fellow as her own offspring.
'Three weeks later Monghyr was relieved by the British troops, Lady Ulick Browne being among
the few of the gallant survivors of the siege. But not till nearly three months afterwards were
she and her husband able to ascertain what had become of their child and nurse or to
discover whether they had managed to get safely through the Sepoy lines around Monghyr
and through the rebel infested country to safety, or had perished in the attempt.
'Eventually, however, the faithful and devoted ayah turned up with the little fellow, who is 
now the new Marquis of Sligo……….'
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